Publications

Publication Highlights

Revealing Einstein’s “spooky action” without destroying it

Physicists at MPQ and MCQST have developed a novel photonic instrument to non-destructively reveal the entanglement of two distant atomic qubits.

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Tracking for quantum post

A detector detects photons transporting qubits without destroying the quantum information.

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Precession squared: The rise of pseudospin

A team of researchers including MCQST members have discovered an exciting method for controlling spin carried by quantized spin wave excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators.

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A Modem for the Quantum Internet

Physicists at MPQ have developed an efficient modem for the future quantum internet.

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MCQST Publication List

Exciton g-factors in monolayer and bilayer WSe2 from experiment and theory

J. Foerste, N.V. Tepliakov, S.Y. Kruchinin, J. Lindlau, V. Funk, M. Foerg, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A.S. Baimuratov, A. Hoegele

Nature Communications 11 (1), 4539 (2020).

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The optical properties of monolayer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are governed by excitons in different spin and valley configurations, providing versatile aspects for van der Waals heterostructures and devices. Here, we present experimental and theoretical studies of exciton energy splittings in external magnetic field in neutral and charged WSe2 monolayer and bilayer crystals embedded in a field effect device for active doping control. We develop theoretical methods to calculate the exciton g-factors from first principles for all possible spin-valley configurations of excitons in monolayer and bilayer WSe2 including valley-indirect excitons. Our theoretical and experimental findings shed light on some of the characteristic photoluminescence peaks observed for monolayer and bilayer WSe2. In more general terms, the theoretical aspects of our work provide additional means for the characterization of single and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, as well as their heterostructures, in the presence of external magnetic fields.

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18019-1

A nondestructive Bell-state measurement on two distant atomic qubits

S. Welte, P. Thomas, L. Hartung, S. Daiss, S. Langenfeld, O. Morin, G. Rempe, and E. Distante

Nature Photonics (2021).

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One of the most fascinating aspects of quantum networks is their capability to distribute entanglement as a nonlocal communication resource. In a first step, this requires network-ready devices that can generate and store entangled states. Another crucial step, however, is to develop measurement techniques that allow for entanglement detection. Demonstrations for different platforms suffer from being not complete, destructive or local. Here, we demonstrate a complete and nondestructive measurement scheme that always projects any initial state of two spatially separated network nodes onto a maximally entangled state. Each node consists of an atom trapped inside an optical resonator from which two photons are successively reflected. Polarization measurements on the photons discriminate between the four maximally entangled states. Remarkably, such states are not destroyed by our measurement. In the future, our technique might serve to probe the decay of entanglement and to stabilize it against dephasing via repeated measurements.

DOI: 10.1038/s41566-021-00802-1

Gaussian continuous tensor network states for simple bosonic field theories

T. D. Karanikolaou, P. Emonts, and A. Tilloy.

Physical Review Research 3, 023059 (2021).

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Tensor networks states allow one to find the low-energy states of local lattice Hamiltonians through variational optimization. Recently, a construction of such states in the continuum was put forward, providing a first step towards the goal of solving quantum field theories (QFTs) variationally. However, the proposed manifold of continuous tensor network states (CTNSs) is difficult to study in full generality, because the expectation values of local observables cannot be computed analytically. In this paper we study a tractable subclass of CTNSs, the Gaussian CTNSs (GCTNSs), and benchmark them on simple quadratic and quartic bosonic QFT Hamiltonians. We show that GCTNSs provide arbitrarily accurate approximations to the ground states of quadratic Hamiltonians and decent estimates for quartic ones at weak coupling. Since they capture the short distance behavior of the theories we consider exactly, GCTNSs even allow one to renormalize away simple divergences variationally. In the end our study makes it plausible that CTNSs are indeed a good manifold to approximate the low-energy states of QFTs.

10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.023059

Moire excitons in MoSe2-WSe2 heterobilayers and heterotrilayers

M. Foerg, A.S. Baimuratov, S.Y. Kruchinin, I.A. Vovk, J. Scherzer, J. Foerste, V. Funk, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. Hoegele

Nature Communications 12 (1), 1656 (2021).

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Layered two-dimensional materials exhibit rich transport and optical phenomena in twisted or lattice-incommensurate heterostructures with spatial variations of interlayer hybridization arising from moire interference effects. Here, we report experimental and theoretical studies of excitons in twisted heterobilayers and heterotrilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides. Using MoSe2-WSe2 stacks as representative realizations of twisted van der Waals bilayer and trilayer heterostructures, we observe contrasting optical signatures and interpret them in the theoretical framework of interlayer moire excitons in different spin and valley configurations. We conclude that the photoluminescence of MoSe2-WSe2 heterobilayer is consistent with joint contributions from radiatively decaying valley-direct interlayer excitons and phonon-assisted emission from momentum-indirect reservoirs that reside in spatially distinct regions of moire supercells, whereas the heterotrilayer emission is entirely due to momentum-dark interlayer excitons of hybrid-layer valleys. Our results highlight the profound role of interlayer hybridization for transition metal dichalcogenide heterostacks and other realizations of multi-layered semiconductor van der Waals heterostructures. Here, the authors show that the photoluminescence of MoSe2/WSe2 heterobilayers is dominated by valley-direct excitons, whereas, in heterotrilayers, interlayer hybridization turns momentum-indirect interlayer excitons into energetically lowest states with phonon-assisted emission.

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21822-z

Uncertainty in Identification Systems

M.T. Vu, T.J. Oechtering, M. Skoglund, H. Boche

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 67 (3), 1400-1414 (2021).

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High-dimensional identification systems consisting of two groups of users in the presence of statistical uncertainties are considered in this work. The task is to design enrollment mappings to compress users' information and an identification mapping that combines the stored information in the database and an observation to estimate the underlying user index. The compression-identification trade-off regions are established for the compound, extended compound, general and mixture settings. It is shown that several settings admit the same compression-identification trade-offs. We then study a connection between the Wyner-Ahlswede-Korner network and the identification setting. It indicates that a strong converse for the WAK network is equivalent to a strong converse for the identification setting. Finally, we present strong converse arguments for the discrete identification setting that are extensible to the Gaussian scenario.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2020.3044974

Anomalous Quantum Oscillations in a Heterostructure of Graphene on a Proximate Quantum Spin Liquid

V. Leeb, K. Polyudov, S. Mashhadi, S. Biswas, R. Valenti, M. Burghard, J. Knolle

Physical Review Letters 126 (9), 097201 (2021).

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The quasi-two-dimensional Mott insulator alpha-RuCl3 is proximate to the sought-after Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). In a layer of alpha-RuCl3 on graphene, the dominant Kitaev exchange is further enhanced by strain. Recently, quantum oscillation (QO) measurements of such alpha-RuCl3 and graphene heterostructures showed an anomalous temperature dependence beyond the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) description. Here, we develop a theory of anomalous QO in an effective Kitaev-Kondo lattice model in which the itinerant electrons of the graphene layer interact with the correlated magnetic layer via spin interactions. At low temperatures, a heavy Fermi liquid emerges such that the neutral Majorana fermion excitations of the Kitaev QSL acquire charge by hybridizing with the graphene Dirac band. Using ab initio calculations to determine the parameters of our low-energy model, we provide a microscopic theory of anomalous QOs with a non-LK temperature dependence consistent with our measurements. We show how remnants of fractionalized spin excitations can give rise to characteristic signatures in QO experiments.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.097201

Selective and robust time-optimal rotations of spin systems

Q. Ansel, S.J. Glaser, D. Sugny

Journal of Physics A-Mathematical and Theoretical 54 (8), 085204 (2021).

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We study the selective and robust time-optimal rotation control of several spin-1/2 particles with different offset terms. For that purpose, the Pontryagin maximum principle is applied to a model of two spins, which is simple enough for analytic computations and sufficiently complex to describe inhomogeneity effects. We find that selective and robust controls are respectively described by singular and regular trajectories. Using a geometric analysis combined with numerical simulations, we determine the optimal solutions of different control problems. Selective and robust controls can be derived analytically without numerical optimization. We show the optimality of several standard control mechanisms in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but new robust controls are also designed.

DOI: 10.1088/1751-8121/abdba1

3D Deep Learning Enables Accurate Layer Mapping of 2D Materials

X.C. Dong, H.W. Li, Z.T. Jiang, T. Grunleitner, I. Gueler, J. Dong, K. Wang, M.H. Koehler, M. Jakobi, B.H. Menze, A.K. Yetisen, I.D. Sharp, A.V. Stier, J.J. Finley, A.W. Koch

ACS Nano 15 (2), 3139-3151 (2021).

Show Abstract

Layered, two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising for next-generation photonics devices. Typically, the thickness of mechanically cleaved flakes and chemical vapor deposited thin films is distributed randomly over a large area, where accurate identification of atomic layer numbers is time-consuming. Hyperspectral imaging microscopy yields spectral information that can be used to distinguish the spectral differences of varying thickness specimens. However, its spatial resolution is relatively low due to the spectral imaging nature. In this work, we present a 3D deep learning solution called DALM (deep-learning-enabled atomic layer mapping) to merge hyperspectral reflection images (high spectral resolution) and RGB images (high spatial resolution) for the identification and segmentation of MoS2 flakes with mono-, bi-, tri-, and multilayer thicknesses. DALM is trained on a small set of labeled images, automatically predicts layer distributions and segments individual layers with high accuracy, and shows robustness to illumination and contrast variations. Further, we show its advantageous performance over the state-of-the-art model that is solely based on RGB microscope images. This AI-supported technique with high speed, spatial resolution, and accuracy allows for reliable computer-aided identification of atomically thin materials.

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c09685

Temperature-Dependent Spin Transport and Current-Induced Torques in Superconductor-Ferromagnet Heterostructures

M. Mueller, L. Liensberger, L. Flacke, H. Huebl, A. Kamra, W. Belzig, R. Gross, M. Weiler, M. Althammer

Physical Review Letters 126 (8), 087201 (2021).

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We investigate the injection of quasiparticle spin currents into a superconductor via spin pumping from an adjacent ferromagnetic metal layer. To this end, we use NbN-Ni80Fe20(Py) heterostructures with a Pt spin sink layer and excite ferromagnetic resonance in the Permalloy layer by placing the samples onto a coplanar waveguide. A phase sensitive detection of the microwave transmission signal is used to quantitatively extract the inductive coupling strength between the sample and the coplanar waveguide, interpreted in terms of inverse current-induced torques, in our heterostructures as a function of temperature. Below the superconducting transition temperature T-c, we observe a suppression of the dampinglike torque generated in the Pt layer by the inverse spin Hall effect, which can be understood by the changes in spin current transport in the superconducting NbN layer. Moreover, below T-c we find a large fieldlike current-induced torque.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.087201

Vacancy-Induced Low-Energy Density of States in the Kitaev Spin Liquid

W.H. Kao, J. Knolle, G.B. Halasz, R. Moessner, N.B. Perkins

Physical Review X 11 (1), 011034 (2021).

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The Kitaev honeycomb model has attracted significant attention due to its exactly solvable spin-liquid ground state with fractionalized Majorana excitations and its possible materialization in magnetic Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit couplings. Recently, the 5d-electron compound H3LiIr2O6 has shown to be a strong candidate for Kitaev physics considering the absence of any signs of a long-range ordered magnetic state. In this work, we demonstrate that a finite density of random vacancies in the Kitaev model gives rise to a striking pileup of low-energy Majorana eigenmodes and reproduces the apparent power-law upturn in the specific heat measurements of H3LiIr2O6. Physically, the vacancies can originate from various sources such as missing magnetic moments or the presence of nonmagnetic impurities (true vacancies), or from local weak couplings of magnetic moments due to strong but rare bond randomness (quasivacancies). We show numerically that the vacancy effect is readily detectable even at low vacancy concentrations and that it is not very sensitive either to the nature of vacancies or to different flux backgrounds. We also study the response of the site-diluted Kitaev spin liquid to the three-spin interaction term, which breaks time-reversal symmetry and imitates an external magnetic field. We propose a field-induced flux-sector transition where the ground state becomes flux-free for larger fields, resulting in a clear suppression of the low-temperature specific heat. Finally, we discuss the effect of dangling Majorana fermions in the case of true vacancies and show that their coupling to an applied magnetic field via the Zeeman interaction can also account for the scaling behavior in the high-field limit observed in H3LiIr2O6.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.11.011034

Engineering the Luminescence and Generation of Individual Defect Emitters in Atomically Thin MoS2

J. Klein, L. Sigl, S. Gyger, K. Barthelmi, M. Florian, S. Rey T. Taniguchi K. Watanabe, F. Jahnke, C. Kastl, V. Zwiller, K.D. Jons, K. Mueller, U. Wurstbauer, J.J. Finley, A.W. Holleitner

ACS Photonics 8 (2), 669-677 (2021).

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We demonstrate the on-demand creation and positioning of photon emitters in atomically thin MoS2 with very narrow ensemble broadening and negligible background luminescence. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation creates 100s to 1000s of such mono-typical emitters at specific positions in the MoS2 monolayers. Individually measured photon emitters show anti-bunching behavior with a g(2)(0) similar to 0.23 and 0.27. From a statistical analysis, we extract the creation yield of the He-ion induced photon emitters in MoS2 as a function of the exposed area, as well as the total yield of single emitters as a function of the number of He ions when single spots are irradiated by He ions. We reach probabilities as high as 18% for the generation of individual and spectrally clean photon emitters per irradiated single site. Our results firmly establish 2D materials as a platform for photon emitters with unprecedented control of position as well as photophysical properties owing to the all-interfacial nature.

DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.0c01907

Ionic liquid gating of single-walled carbon nanotube devices with ultra-short channel length down to 10nm

A. Jannisek, J. Lenz, F. del Giudice, M. Gaulke, F. Pyatkov, S. Dehm, F. Hennrich, L. Wei, Y. Chen, A. Fediai, M. Kappes, W. Wenzel, R. Krupke, R.T. Weitz

Applied Physics Letters 118 (6), 063101 (2021).

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Ionic liquids enable efficient gating of materials with nanoscale morphology due to the formation of a nanoscale double layer that can also follow strongly vaulted surfaces. On carbon nanotubes, this can lead to the formation of a cylindrical gate layer, allowing an ideal control of the drain current even at small gate voltages. In this work, we apply ionic liquid gating to chirality-sorted (9, 8) carbon nanotubes bridging metallic electrodes with gap sizes of 20nm and 10nm. The single-tube devices exhibit diameter-normalized current densities of up to 2.57mA/mu m, on-off ratios up to 10(4), and a subthreshold swing down to 100mV/dec. Measurements after long vacuum storage indicate that the hysteresis of ionic liquid gated devices depends not only on the gate voltage sweep rate and the polarization dynamics but also on charge traps in the vicinity of the carbon nanotube, which, in turn, might act as trap states for the ionic liquid ions. The ambipolar transfer characteristics are compared with calculations based on the Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Qualitative agreement is demonstrated, and the possible reasons for quantitative deviations and possible improvements to the model are discussed. Besides being of fundamental interest, the results have potential relevance for biosensing applications employing high-density device arrays.

10.1063/5.0034792

Experimental evidence for Zeeman spin-orbit coupling in layered antiferromagnetic conductors

R. Ramazashvili, P.D. Grigoriev, T. Helm, F. Kollmannsberger, M. Kunz, W. Biberacher, E. Kampert, H. Fujiwara, A. Erb, J. Wosnitza, R. Gross, M.V. Kartsovnik

NPJ Quantum Materials 6 (1), 11 (2021).

Show Abstract

Most of solid-state spin physics arising from spin-orbit coupling, from fundamental phenomena to industrial applications, relies on symmetry-protected degeneracies. So does the Zeeman spin-orbit coupling, expected to manifest itself in a wide range of antiferromagnetic conductors. Yet, experimental proof of this phenomenon has been lacking. Here we demonstrate that the Neel state of the layered organic superconductor kappa-(BETS)(2)FeBr4 shows no spin modulation of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, contrary to its paramagnetic state. This is unambiguous evidence for the spin degeneracy of Landau levels, a direct manifestation of the Zeeman spin-orbit coupling. Likewise, we show that spin modulation is absent in electron-doped Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4, which evidences the presence of Neel order in this cuprate superconductor even at optimal doping. Obtained on two very different materials, our results demonstrate the generic character of the Zeeman spin-orbit coupling.

DOI: 10.1038/s41535-021-00309-6

The view of TK-SVM on the phase hierarchy in the classical kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

J. Greitemann, K. Liu, L. Pollet

Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 33 (5), 054002 (2021).

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We illustrate how the tensorial kernel support vector machine (TK-SVM) can probe the hidden multipolar orders and emergent local constraint in the classical kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. We show that TK-SVM learns the finite-temperature phase diagram in an unsupervised way. Moreover, in virtue of its strong interpretability, it identifies the tensorial quadrupolar and octupolar orders, which define a biaxial D-3h spin nematic, and the local constraint that underlies the selection of coplanar states. We then discuss the disorder hierarchy of the phases, which can be inferred from both the analytical order parameters and an SVM bias parameter. For completeness we mention that the machine also picks up the leading 3x3<i correlations in the dipolar channel at very low temperature, which are however weak compared to the quadrupolar and octupolar orders. Our work shows how TK-SVM can facilitate and speed up the analysis of classical frustrated magnets.

DOI: 10.1088/1361-648X/abbe7b

Simulating 2+1D Z(3) Lattice Gauge Theory with an Infinite Projected Entangled-Pair State

D. Robaina, M.C. Banuls, J.I. Cirac

Physical Review Letters 126 (5), 050401 (2021).

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We simulate a zero-temperature pure Z(3) lattice gauge theory in 2 + 1 dimensions by using an iPEPS (infmite projected entangled-pair state) Ansatz for the ground state. Our results are therefore directly valid in the thermodynamic limit. They clearly show two distinct phases separated by a phase transition. We introduce an update strategy that enables plaquette terms and Gauss-law constraints to be applied as sequences of two-body operators. This allows the use of the most up-to-date iPEPS algorithms. From the calculation of spatial Wilson loops we are able to prove the existence of a confined phase. We show that with relatively low computational cost it is possible to reproduce crucial features of gauge theories. We expect that the strategy allows the extension of iPEPS studies to more general LGTs.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.050401

Implementing graph-theoretic quantum algorithms on a silicon photonic quantum walk processor

X.G. Qiang, Y.Z. Wang, S.C. Xue, R.Y. Ge, L.F. Chen, Y.W. Liu, A.Q. Huang, X. Fu, P. Xu, T. Yi, F.F. Xu, M.T. Deng, J.B. Wang, J.D.A. Meinecke, J.C.F. Matthews, X.L. Cai, X.J. Yang, J.J. Wu

Science Advances 7 (9), eabb8375 (2021).

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Applications of quantum walks can depend on the number, exchange symmetry and indistinguishability of the particles involved, and the underlying graph structures where they move. Here, we show that silicon photonics, by exploiting an entanglement-driven scheme, can realize quantum walks with full control over all these properties in one device. The device we realize implements entangled two-photon quantum walks on any five-vertex graph, with continuously tunable particle exchange symmetry and indistinguishability. We show how this simulates single-particle walks on larger graphs, with size and geometry controlled by tuning the properties of the composite quantum walkers. We apply the device to quantum walk algorithms for searching vertices in graphs and testing for graph isomorphisms. In doing so, we implement up to 100 sampled time steps of quantum walk evolution on each of 292 different graphs. This opens the way to large-scale, programmable quantum walk processors for classically intractable applications.

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb8375

The quantum random energy model as a limit of p-spin interactions

C. Manai, S. Warzel

Reviews in Mathematical Physics 33 (1), 2060013 (2021).

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We consider the free energy of a mean-field quantum spin glass described by a p-spin interaction and a transversal magnetic field. Recent rigorous results for the case p = infinity, i.e. the quantum random energy model (QREM), are reviewed. We show that the free energy of the p-spin model converges in a joint thermodynamic and p -> infinity limit to the free energy of the QREM.

DOI: 10.1142/S0129055X20600132

Revisiting Groeneveld's approach to the virial expansion

S. Jansen

Journal of Mathematical Physics 62 (2), 023302 (2021).

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A generalized version of Groeneveld's convergence criterion for the virial expansion and generating functionals for weighted two-connected graphs is proven. This criterion works for inhomogeneous systems and yields bounds for the density expansions of the correlation functions rho (s) (a.k.a. distribution functions or factorial moment measures) of grand-canonical Gibbs measures with pairwise interactions. The proof is based on recurrence relations for graph weights related to the Kirkwood-Salsburg integral equation for correlation functions. The proof does not use an inversion of the density-activity expansion; however, a Mobius inversion on the lattice of set partitions enters the derivation of the recurrence relations.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0030148

Lagrange Inversion and Combinatorial Species with Uncountable Color Palette

S. Jansen, T. Kuna, D. Tsagkarogiannis

Annales Henri Poincare

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We prove a multivariate Lagrange-Good formula for functionals of uncountably many variables and investigate its relation with inversion formulas using trees. We clarify the cancellations that take place between the two aforementioned formulas and draw connections with similar approaches in a range of applications.

DOI: 10.1007/s00023-020-01013-0

Random Multipolar Driving: Tunably Slow Heating through Spectral Engineering

H.Z. Zhao, F. Mintert, R. Moessner, J. Knolle

Physical Review Letters 126 (4), 040601 (2021).

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Driven quantum systems may realize novel phenomena absent in static systems, but driving-induced heating can limit the timescale on which these persist. We study heating in interacting quantum many-body systems driven by random sequences with n-multipolar correlations, corresponding to a polynomially suppressed low-frequency spectrum. For n >= 1, we find a prethermal regime, the lifetime of which grows algebraically with the driving rate, with exponent 2n + 1. A simple theory based on Fermi's golden rule accounts for this behavior. The quasiperiodic Thue-Morse sequence corresponds to the n -> infinity limit and, accordingly, exhibits an exponentially long-lived prethermal regime. Despite the absence of periodicity in the drive, and in spite of its eventual heat death, the prethermal regime can host versatile nonequilibrium phases, which we illustrate with a random multipolar discrete time crystal.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.040601

A scaled explicitly correlated F12 correction to second-order MOller-Plesset perturbation theory

L. Urban, T.H. Thompson, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Physics 154 (4), 044101 (2021).

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An empirically scaled version of the explicitly correlated F12 correction to second-order MOller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2-F12) is introduced. The scaling eliminates the need for many of the most costly terms of the F12 correction while reproducing the unscaled explicitly correlated F12 interaction energy correction to a high degree of accuracy. The method requires a single, basis set dependent scaling factor that is determined by fitting to a set of test molecules. We present factors for the cc-pVXZ-F12 (X = D, T, Q) basis set family obtained by minimizing interaction energies of the S66 set of small- to medium-sized molecular complexes and show that our new method can be applied to accurately describe a wide range of systems. Remarkably good explicitly correlated corrections to the interaction energy are obtained for the S22 and L7 test sets, with mean percentage errors for the double-zeta basis of 0.60% for the F12 correction to the interaction energy, 0.05% for the total electron correlation interaction energy, and 0.03% for the total interaction energy, respectively. Additionally, mean interaction energy errors introduced by our new approach are below 0.01 kcal mol(-1) for each test set and are thus negligible for second-order perturbation theory based methods. The efficiency of the new method compared to the unscaled F12 correction is shown for all considered systems, with distinct speedups for medium- to large-sized structures.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0033411

Gate-Switchable Arrays of Quantum Light Emitters in Contacted Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterodevices

A. Hoetger, J. Klein, K. Barthelmi, L. Sigl, F. Sigger, W. Manner, S. Gyger, M. Florian, M. Lorke, F. Jahnke, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K.D. Jons, U. Wurstbauer, C. Kastl, K. Mueller, J.J. Finley, A.W. Holleitner

Nano Letters 21 (2), 1040-1046 (2021).

Show Abstract

We demonstrate electrostatic switching of individual, site-selectively generated matrices of single photon emitters (SPEs) in MoS2 van der Waals heterodevices. We contact monolayers of MoS2 in field-effect devices with graphene gates and hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric and graphite as bottom gates. After the assembly of such gate-tunable heterodevices, we demonstrate how arrays of defects, that serve as quantum emitters, can be site-selectively generated in the monolayer MoS2 by focused helium ion irradiation. The SPEs are sensitive to the charge carrier concentration in the MoS2 and switch on and off similar to the neutral exciton in MoS2 for moderate electron doping. The demonstrated scheme is a first step for producing scalable, gate-addressable, and gate-switchable arrays of quantum light emitters in MoS2 heterostacks.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04222

Charged Exciton Kinetics in Monolayer MoSe2 near Ferroelectric Domain Walls in Periodically Poled LiNbO3

P. Soubelet, J. Klein, J. Wierzbowski, R. Silvioli, F. Sigger, A.V. Stier, K. Gallo, J.J. Finley

Nano Letter 21 (2), 959-966 (2021).

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Monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichal-cogenides are a strongly emergent platform for exploring quantum phenomena in condensed matter, building novel optoelectronic devices with enhanced functionalities. Because of their atomic thickness, their excitonic optical response is highly sensitive to their dielectric environment. In this work, we explore the optical properties of monolayer thick MoSe2 straddling domain wall boundaries in periodically poled LiNbO3. Spatially resolved photoluminescence experiments reveal spatial sorting of charge and photogenerated neutral and charged excitons across the boundary. Our results reveal evidence for extremely large in-plane electric fields of similar or equal to 4000 kV/cm at the domain wall whose effect is manifested in exciton dissociation and routing of free charges and trions toward oppositely poled domains and a nonintuitive spatial intensity dependence. By modeling our result using drift-diffusion and continuity equations, we obtain excellent qualitative agreement with our observations and have explained the observed spatial luminescence modulation using realistic material parameters.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03810

Mobile impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate and the orthogonality catastrophe

N.E. Guenther, R. Schmidt, G.M. Bruun, V. Gurarie, P. Massignan

Physical Review A 103 (1), 013317 (2021).

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We analyze the properties of an impurity in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The quasiparticle residue of a static impurity in an ideal BEC is known to vanish exponentially with increasing particle number, leading to a bosonic orthogonality catastrophe. Here we introduce a conceptually simple variational ansatz for mobile impurities which accurately describes their macroscopic dressing in the regime close to orthogonality, including back-action onto the BEC as well as boson-boson repulsion beyond the Bogoliubov approximation. This ansatz predicts that the orthogonality catastrophe also occurs in the mobile case, whenever the BEC becomes ideal. Finally, we show that our ansatz agrees well with recent experimental results.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.103.013317

Robust all-optical single-shot readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

D.M. Irber, F. Poggiali, F. Kong, M. Kieschnick, T. Luehmann, D. Kwiatkowski, J. Meijer, J.F. Du, F.Z. Shi, F. Reinhard

Nature Communications 12 (1), 532 (2021).

Show Abstract

High-fidelity projective readout of a qubit's state in a single experimental repetition is a prerequisite for various quantum protocols of sensing and computing. Achieving single-shot readout is challenging for solid-state qubits. For Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, it has been realized using nuclear memories or resonant excitation at cryogenic temperature. All of these existing approaches have stringent experimental demands. In particular, they require a high efficiency of photon collection, such as immersion optics or all-diamond micro-optics. For some of the most relevant applications, such as shallow implanted NV centers in a cryogenic environment, these tools are unavailable. Here we demonstrate an all-optical spin readout scheme that achieves single-shot fidelity even if photon collection is poor (delivering less than 10(3) clicks/second). The scheme is based on spin-dependent resonant excitation at cryogenic temperature combined with spin-to-charge conversion, mapping the fragile electron spin states to the stable charge states. We prove this technique to work on shallow implanted NV centers, as they are required for sensing and scalable NV-based quantum registers. The NV center in diamond has been used extensively in sensing; however single shot readout of its spin remains challenging, requiring complex optical setups. Here, Irber et al. demonstrate a more robust scheme that achieves single-shot readout even when using inefficient detection optics.

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-20755-3

Erbium dopants in nanophotonic silicon waveguides

Lorenz Weiss, Andreas Gritsch, Benjamin Merkel, and Andreas Reiserer

Optica 8, 40–41 (2021).

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We perform resonant spectroscopy of erbium implanted into nanophotonic silicon waveguides, finding 1 GHz inhomogeneous broadening and homogeneous linewidths below 0.1 GHz. Our study thus introduces a promising materials platform for on-chip quantum information processing.

DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.413330

Probing the Hall Voltage in Synthetic Quantum Systems

M. Buser, S. Greschner, U. Schollwoeck, T. Giamarchi

Physical Review Letters 126 (3), 030501 (2021).

Show Abstract

YIn the context of experimental advances in the realization of artificial magnetic fields in quantum gases, we discuss feasible schemes to extend measurements of the Hall polarization to a study of the Hall voltage, allowing for direct comparison with solid state systems. Specifically, for the paradigmatic example of interacting flux ladders, we report on characteristic zero crossings and a remarkable robustness of the Hall voltage with respect to interaction strengths, particle fillings, and ladder geometries, which is unobservable in the Hall polarization. Moreover, we investigate the site-resolved Hall response in spatially inhomogeneous quantum phases.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.030501

Raman spectrum of Janus transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers WSSe and MoSSe

M.M. Petric, M. Kremser, M. Barbone, Y. Qin, Y. Sayyad, Y.X. Shen, S. Tongay, J.J. Finley, A.R. Botello-Mendez, K. Mueller

Physical Review B 103 (3), 035414 (2021).

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Janus transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) lose the horizontal mirror symmetry of ordinary TMDs, leading to the emergence of additional features, such as native piezoelectricity, Rashba effect, and enhanced catalytic activity. While Raman spectroscopy is an essential nondestructive, phase- and composition-sensitive tool to monitor the synthesis of materials, a comprehensive study of the Raman spectrum of Janus monolayers is still missing. Here, we discuss the Raman spectra of WSSe and MoSSe measured at room and cryogenic temperatures, near and off resonance. By combining polarization-resolved Raman data with calculations of the phonon dispersion and using symmetry considerations, we identify the four first-order Raman modes and higher-order two-phonon modes. Moreover, we observe defect-activated phonon processes, which provide a route toward a quantitative assessment of the defect concentration and, thus, the crystal quality of the materials. Our work establishes a solid background for future research on material synthesis, study, and application of Janus TMD monolayers.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.103.035414

Laser stabilization to a cryogenic fiber ring resonator

B. Merkel, D. Repp, and A. Reiserer

Optics Letters 46, 444-447 (2021).

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The frequency stability of lasers is limited by thermal noise in state-of-the-art frequency references. Further improvement requires operation at cryogenic temperature. In this context, we investigate a fiber-based ring resonator. Our system exhibits a first-order temperature-insensitive point around 3.55K, much lower than that of crystalline silicon. The observed low sensitivity with respect to vibrations (<5⋅10−11m−1s2), temperature (−22(1)⋅10−9K−2), and pressure changes (4.2(2)⋅10−11mbar−2) makes our approach promising for future precision experiments.

DOI: 10.1364/OL.413847

Dominant Fifth-Order Correlations in Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

A. Bohrdt, Y. Wang, J. Koepsell, M. Kanasz-Nagy, E. Demler, F. Grusdt

Physical Review Letters 126 (2), 026401 (2021).

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Traditionally, one- and two-point correlation functions are used to characterize many-body systems. In strongly correlated quantum materials, such as the doped 2D Fermi-Hubbard system, these may no longer be sufficient, because higher-order correlations are crucial to understanding the character of the many-body system and can be numerically dominant. Experimentally, such higher-order correlations have recently become accessible in ultracold atom systems. Here, we reveal strong non-Gaussian correlations in doped quantum antiferromagnets and show that higher-order correlations dominate over lower-order terms. We study a single mobile hole in the t - J model using the density matrix renormalization group and reveal genuine fifth-order correlations which are directly related to the mobility of the dopant. We contrast our results to predictions using models based on doped quantum spin liquids which feature significantly reduced higher-order correlations. Our predictions can be tested at the lowest currently accessible temperatures in quantum simulators of the 2D Fermi-Hubbard model. Finally, we propose to experimentally study the same fifth-order spin-charge correlations as a function of doping. This will help to reveal the microscopic nature of charge carriers in the most debated regime of the Hubbard model, relevant for understanding high-T-c superconductivity.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.026401

Low-Scaling Tensor Hypercontraction in the Cholesky Molecular Orbital Basis Applied to Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory

F.H. Bangerter, M. Glasbrenner, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 17 (1), 211-221 (2021).

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We employ various reduced scaling techniques to accelerate the recently developed least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) approximation [Parrish, R M., Hohenstein, E. G., Martinez, T. J., Sherrill, C. D. J. Chem. Phys. 137, 224106 (2012)] for electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) and apply it to second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The grid-projected ERI tensors are efficiently constructed using a localized Cholesky molecular orbital basis from density-fitted integrals with an attenuated Coulomb metric. Additionally, rigorous integral screening and the natural blocking matrix format are applied to reduce the complexity of this step. By recasting the equations to form the quantized representation of the 1/r operator Z into the form of a system of linear equations, the bottleneck of inverting the grid metric via pseudoinversion is removed. This leads to a reduced scaling THC algorithm and application to MP2 yields the (sub-)quadratically scaling THC-omega-RI-CDD-SOS-MP2 method. The efficiency of this method is assessed for various systems including DNA fragments with over 8000 basis functions and the subquadratic scaling is illustrated.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.0c00934

Concept of Orbital Entanglement and Correlation in Quantum Chemistry

L.X. Ding, S. Mardazad, S. Das, S. Szalay, U. Schollwoeck, Z. Zimboras, C. Schilling

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 17 (1), 79-95 (2021).

Show Abstract

A recent development in quantum chemistry has established the quantum mutual information between orbitals as a major descriptor of electronic structure. This has already facilitated remarkable improvements in numerical methods and may lead to a more comprehensive foundation for chemical bonding theory. Building on this promising development, our work provides a refined discussion of quantum information theoretical concepts by introducing the physical correlation and its separation into classical and quantum parts as distinctive quantifiers of electronic structure. In particular, we succeed in quantifying the entanglement. Intriguingly, our results for different molecules reveal that the total correlation between orbitals is mainly classical, raising questions about the general significance of entanglement in chemical bonding. Our work also shows that implementing the fundamental particle number superselection rule, so far not accounted for in quantum chemistry, removes a major part of correlation and entanglement seen previously. In that respect, realizing quantum information processing tasks with molecular systems might be more challenging than anticipated.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.0c00559

Microwave Spectroscopy of the Low-Temperature Skyrmion State in Cu2OSeO3

A. Aqeel, J. Sahliger, T. Taniguchi, S. Maendl, D. Mettus, H. Berger, A. Bauer, M. Garst, C. Pfleiderer, C.H. Back.

Physical Review Letters 126 (1), 017202 (2021).

Show Abstract

In the cubic chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3 a low-temperature skyrmion state (LTS) and a concomitant tilted conical state are observed for magnetic fields parallel to h100i. Here, we report on the dynamic resonances of these novel magnetic states. After promoting the nucleation of the LTS by means of field cycling, we apply broadband microwave spectroscopy in two experimental geometries that provide either predominantly in-plane or out-of-plane excitation. By comparing the results to linear spin-wave theory, we clearly identify resonant modes associated with the tilted conical state, the gyrational and breathing modes associated with the LTS, as well as the hybridization of the breathing mode with a dark octupole gyration mode mediated by the magnetocrystalline anisotropies. Most intriguingly, our findings suggest that under decreasing fields the hexagonal skyrmion lattice becomes unstable with respect to an oblique deformation, reflected in the formation of elongated skyrmions.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.017202

Semantic Security via Seeded Modular Coding Schemes and Ramanujan Graphs

M. Wiese, H. Boche

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 67 (1), 52-80 (2021).

Show Abstract

A novel type of functions called biregular irreducible functions is introduced and applied as security components (instead of, e.g., universal hash functions) in seeded modular wiretap coding schemes, whose second component is an error-correcting code. These schemes are called modular BRI schemes. An upper bound on the semantic security information leakage of modular BRI schemes in a one-shot setting is derived which separates the effects of the biregular irreducible function on the one hand and the error-correcting code plus the channel on the other hand. The effect of the biregular irreducible function is described by the second-largest eigenvalue of an associated stochastic matrix. A characterization of biregular irreducible functions is given in terms of connected edge-disjoint biregular graphs. It allows for the construction of new biregular irreducible functions from families of edge-disjoint Ramanujan graphs, which are shown to exist. A concrete and frequently used arithmetic universal hash function can be converted into a biregular irreducible function for certain parameters. Sequences of Ramanujan biregular irreducible functions are constructed which exhibit an optimal trade-off between the size of the regularity set and the rate of decrease of the associated second-largest eigenvalue. Together with the one-shot bound on the information leakage, the existence of these sequences implies an asymptotic coding result for modular BRI schemes applied to discrete and Gaussian wiretap channels. It shows that the separation of error correction and security as done in a modular BRI scheme is secrecy capacity-achieving for every discrete and Gaussian wiretap channel. The same holds for a derived construction where the seed is generated locally by the sender and reused several times. It is shown that the optimal sequences of biregular irreducible functions used in the above constructions must be nearly Ramanujan.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2020.3039231

Time crystallinity and finite-size effects in clean Floquet systems

A. Pizzi, D. Malz, G. De Tomasi, J. Knolle, A. Nunnenkamp

Physical Review B 102 (21), 214207 (2020).

Show Abstract

A cornerstone assumption that most literature on discrete time crystals has relied on is that homogeneous Floquet systems generally heat to a featureless infinite temperature state, an expectation that motivated researchers in the field to mostly focus on many-body localized systems. Some works have, however, shown that the standard diagnostics for time crystallinity apply equally well to clean settings without disorder. This fact raises the question whether a homogeneous discrete time crystal is possible in which the originally expected heating is evaded. Studying both a localized and an homogeneous model with short-range interactions, we clarify this issue showing explicitly the key differences between the two cases. On the one hand, our careful scaling analysis confirms that, in the thermodynamic limit and in contrast to localized discrete time crystals, homogeneous systems indeed heat. On the other hand, we show that, thanks to a mechanism reminiscent of quantum scars, finite-size homogeneous systems can still exhibit very crisp signatures of time crystallinity. A subharmonic response can in fact persist over timescales that are much larger than those set by the integrability-breaking terms, with thermalization possibly occurring only at very large system sizes (e.g., of hundreds of spins). Beyond clarifying the emergence of heating in disorder-free systems, our work casts a spotlight on finite-size homogeneous systems as prime candidates for the experimental implementation of nontrivial out-of-equilibrium physics.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.214207

Static magnetic proximity effects and spin Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 and inverted Y3Fe5O12/Pt bilayers

S. Gepraegs, C. Klewe, S. Meyer, D. Graulich, F. Schade, M. Schneider, S. Francoual, S.P. Collins, K. Ollefs, F. Wilhelm, A. Rogalev, Y. Joly, S.T.B. Goennenwein, M. Opel, T. Kuschel, R. Gross

Physical Review B 102 (21), 214438 (2020).

Show Abstract

The magnetic state of heavy metal Pt thin films in proximity to the ferrimagnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 has been investigated systematically by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity measurements combined with angle-dependent magnetotransport studies. To reveal intermixing effects as the possible cause for induced magnetic moments in Pt, we compare thin film heterostructures with different orders of the layer stacking and different interface properties. For standard Pt layers on Y3Fe5O12 thin films, we do not detect any static magnetic polarization in Pt. These samples show an angle-dependent magnetoresistance behavior, which is consistent with the established spin Hall magnetoresistance. In contrast, for the inverted layer sequence, Y3Fe5O12 thin films grown on Pt layers, Pt displays a finite induced magnetic moment comparable to that of all-metallic Pt/Fe bilayers. This magnetic moment is found to originate from finite intermixing at the Y3Fe5O12/Pt interface. As a consequence, we found a complex angle-dependent magnetoresistance indicating a superposition of the spin Hall and the anisotropic magnetoresistance in these types of samples. Both effects can be disentangled from each other due to their different angle dependence and their characteristic temperature evolution.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.214438

A range-separated generalized Kohn-Sham method including a long-range nonlocal random phase approximation correlation potential

D. Graf, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Physics 153 (24), 244118 (2002).

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Based on our recently published range-separated random phase approximation (RPA) functional [Kreppel et al., "Range-separated density-functional theory in combination with the random phase approximation: An accuracy benchmark," J. Chem. Theory Comput. 16, 2985-2994 (2020)], we introduce self-consistent minimization with respect to the one-particle density matrix. In contrast to the range-separated RPA methods presented so far, the new method includes a long-range nonlocal RPA correlation potential in the orbital optimization process, making it a full-featured variational generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) method. The new method not only improves upon all other tested RPA schemes including the standard post-GKS range-separated RPA for the investigated test cases covering general main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions but also significantly outperforms the popular G(0)W(0) method in estimating the ionization potentials and fundamental gaps considered in this work using the eigenvalue spectra obtained from the GKS Hamiltonian.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0031310

Sideband-resolved resonator electromechanics based on a nonlinear Josephson inductance probed on the single-photon level

P. Schmidt, M.T. Amawi, S. Pogorzalek, F. Deppe, A. Marx, R. Gross, H. Huebl

Communication Physics 3 (1), 233 (2020).

Show Abstract

Light-matter interaction in optomechanical systems is the foundation for ultra-sensitive detection schemes as well as the generation of phononic and photonic quantum states. Electromechanical systems realize this optomechanical interaction in the microwave regime. In this context, capacitive coupling arrangements demonstrated interaction rates of up to 280Hz. Complementary, early proposals and experiments suggest that inductive coupling schemes are tunable and have the potential to reach the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Here, we follow the latter approach by integrating a partly suspended superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) into a microwave resonator. The mechanical displacement translates into a time varying flux in the SQUID loop, thereby providing an inductive electromechanical coupling. We demonstrate a sideband-resolved electromechanical system with a tunable vacuum coupling rate of up to 1.62kHz, realizing sub-aNHz(-1/2) force sensitivities. The presented inductive coupling scheme shows the high potential of SQUID-based electromechanics for targeting the full wealth of the intrinsically nonlinear optomechanics Hamiltonian. Recently, inductively-coupled optomechanical systems have been realized. They represent an important step forward towards achieving strong light-matter interaction, offer extreme sensitivity to mechanical displacement, and allow to study quantum phenomena on a single quantum level. In this work, a superconducting device is inductively coupled to a microwave resonator forming an electromechanical system operating at the single-photon level.

DOI: 10.1038/s42005-020-00501-3

Z(2) Parton Phases in the Mixed-Dimensional t - J(z) Model

F. Grusdt, L. Pollet

Physical Review Letters 125 (25), 256401 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study the interplay of spin and charge degrees of freedom in a doped Ising antiferromagnet, where the motion of charges is restricted to one dimension. The phase diagram of this mixed-dimensional t - J(z) model can be understood in terms of spinless chargons coupled to a Z(2) lattice gauge field. The antiferromagnetic couplings give rise to interactions between Z(2) electric field lines which, in turn, lead to a robust stripe phase at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, a confined meson-gas phase is found for low doping whereas at higher doping values, a robust deconfined chargon-gas phase is seen, which features hidden antiferromagnetic order. We confirm these phases in quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Our model can be implemented and its phases detected with existing technology in ultracold atom experiments. The critical temperature for stripe formation with a sufficiently high hole concentration is around the spin-exchange energy J(z), i.e., well within reach of current experiments.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.256401

Magneto-optical conductivity in generic Weyl semimetals

M. Stalhammar, J. Larana-Aragon, J. Knolle, E.J. Bergholtz

Physical Review B 102 (23), 235134 (2020).

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Magneto-optical studies of Weyl semimetals have been proposed as a versatile tool for observing low-energy Weyl fermions in candidate materials including the chiral Landau level. However, previous theoretical results have been restricted to the linearized regime around the Weyl node and are at odds with experimental findings. Here, we derive a closed form expression for the magneto-optical conductivity of generic Weyl semimetals in the presence of an external magnetic field aligned with the tilt of the spectrum. The systems are taken to have linear dispersion in two directions, while the tilting direction can consist of any arbitrary continuously differentiable function. This general calculation is then used to analytically evaluate the magneto-optical conductivity of Weyl semimetals expanded to cubic order in momentum. In particular, systems with arbitrary tilt, as well as systems hosting trivial Fermi pockets are investigated. The higher-order terms in momentum close the Fermi pockets in the type-II regime, removing the need for unphysical cutoffs when evaluating the magneto-optical conductivity. Crucially, the ability to take into account closed over-tilted and additional trivial Fermi pockets allows us to treat model systems closer to actual materials and we propose a simple explanation why the presence of parasitic trivial Fermi pockets can mask the characteristic signature of Weyl fermions in magneto-optical conductivity measurements.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.235134

Symmetry-adapted decomposition of tensor operators and the visualization of coupled spin systems

D. Leiner, R. Zeier, S.J. Glaser

Journal of Physics A - Mathematical and Theoretical 53 (49), 495301 (2020).

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We study the representation and visualization of finite-dimensional, coupled quantum systems. To establish a generalizedWigner representation, multi-spin operators are decomposed into a symmetry-adapted tensor basis and are mapped to multiple spherical plots that are each assembled from linear combinations of spherical harmonics. We explicitly determine the corresponding symmetry-adapted tensor basis for up to six coupled spins 1/2 (qubits) using a first step that relies on a Clebsch-Gordan decomposition and a second step which is implemented with two different approaches based on explicit projection operators and coefficients of fractional parentage. The approach based on explicit projection operators is currently only applicable for up to four spins 1/2. The resulting generalized Wigner representation is illustrated with various examples for the cases of four to six coupled spins 1/2. We also treat the case of two coupled spins with arbitrary spin numbers (qudits) not necessarily equal to 1/2 and highlight a quantum system of a spin 1/2 coupled to a spin 1 (qutrit). Our work offers a much more detailed understanding of the symmetries appearing in coupled quantum systems.

DOI: 10.1088/1751-8121/ab93ff

Observation of Antiferromagnetic Magnon Pseudospin Dynamics and the Hanle Effect

T. Wimmer, A. Kamra, J. Gueckelhorn, M. Opel, S. Gepraegs, R. Gross, H. Huebl, M. Althammer

Physical Review Letters 125 (24), 247204 (2020).

Show Abstract

We report on experiments demonstrating coherent control of magnon spin transport and pseudospin dynamics in a thin film of the antiferromagnetic insulator hematite utilizing two Pt strips for all-electrical magnon injection and detection. The measured magnon spin signal at the detector reveals an oscillation of its polarity as a function of the externally applied magnetic field. We quantitatively explain our experiments in terms of diffusive magnon transport and a coherent precession of the magnon pseudospin caused by the easy-plane anisotropy and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This experimental observation can be viewed as the magnonic analog of the electronic Hanle effect and the Datta-Das transistor, unlocking the high potential of antiferromagnetic magnonics toward the realization of rich electronics-inspired phenomena.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.247204

Anomalous Diffusion in Dipole- and Higher-Moment-Conserving Systems

J. Feldmeier, P. Sala, G. De Tomasi, F. Pollmann, M. Knap

Physical Review Letters 125 (24), 245303 (2020).

Show Abstract

The presence of global conserved quantities in interacting systems generically leads to diffusive transport at late times. Here, we show that systems conserving the dipole moment of an associated global charge, or even higher-moment generalizations thereof, escape this scenario, displaying subdiffusive decay instead. Modeling the time evolution as cellular automata for specific cases of dipole- and quadrupole conservation, we numerically find distinct anomalous exponents of the late time relaxation. We explain these findings by analytically constructing a general hydrodynamic model that results in a series of exponents depending on the number of conserved moments, yielding an accurate description of the scaling form of charge correlation functions. We analyze the spatial profile of the correlations and discuss potential experimentally relevant signatures of higher-moment conservation.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.245303

Precise control of J(eff)=1/2 magnetic properties in Sr2IrO4 epitaxial thin films by variation of strain and thin film thickness

S. Geprags, B.E. Skovdal , M. Scheufele, M. Opel, D. Wermeille, P. Thompson, A. Bombardi, V. Simonet, S. Grenier, P. Lejay, G.A. Chahine, D.L. Quintero-Castro, R. Gross, D. Mannix

Physical Review B 102 (21), 214402 (2020).

Show Abstract

We report on a comprehensive investigation of the effects of strain and film thickness on the structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial thin films of the prototypal J(eff) = 1/2 compound Sr2IrO4 by advanced x-ray scattering. We find that the Sr2IrO4 thin films can be grown fully strained up to a thickness of 108 nm. By using x-ray resonant scattering, we show that the out-of-plane magnetic correlation length is strongly dependent on the thin film thickness, but independent of the strain state of the thin films. This can be used as a finely tuned dial to adjust the out-of-plane magnetic correlation length and transform the magnetic anisotropy from two-dimensional to three-dimensional behavior by incrementing film thickness. These results provide a clearer picture for the systematic control of the magnetic degrees of freedom in epitaxial thin films of Sr2IrO4 and bring to light the potential for a rich playground to explore the physics of 5d transition-metal compounds.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.214402

Room-Temperature Synthesis of 2D Janus Crystals and their Heterostructures

D.B. Trivedi, G. Turgut, Y. Qin, M.Y. Sayyad, D. Hajra, M. Howell, L. Liu, S.J. Yang, N.H. Patoary, H. Li, M.M. Petric, M. Meyer, M. Kremser, M. Barbone, G. Soavi, A.V. Stier, K. Mueller, S.Z. Yang, I.S. Esqueda, H.L. Zhuang, J.J. Finley, S. Tongay

Advanced Materials 32 (50), 2006320 (2020).

Show Abstract

Janus crystals represent an exciting class of 2D materials with different atomic species on their upper and lower facets. Theories have predicted that this symmetry breaking induces an electric field and leads to a wealth of novel properties, such as large Rashba spin-orbit coupling and formation of strongly correlated electronic states. Monolayer MoSSe Janus crystals have been synthesized by two methods, via controlled sulfurization of monolayer MoSe2 and via plasma stripping followed thermal annealing of MoS2. However, the high processing temperatures prevent growth of other Janus materials and their heterostructures. Here, a room-temperature technique for the synthesis of a variety of Janus monolayers with high structural and optical quality is reported. This process involves low-energy reactive radical precursors, which enables selective removal and replacement of the uppermost chalcogen layer, thus transforming classical transition metal dichalcogenides into a Janus structure. The resulting materials show clear mixed character for their excitonic transitions, and more importantly, the presented room-temperature method enables the demonstration of first vertical and lateral heterojunctions of 2D Janus TMDs. The results present significant and pioneering advances in the synthesis of new classes of 2D materials, and pave the way for the creation of heterostructures from 2D Janus layers.

DOI: 10.1002/adma.202006320

Time-domain photocurrent spectroscopy based on a common-path birefringent interferometer

L. Wolz, C. Heshmatpour, A. Perri, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, J.J. Finley, E. Thyrhaug, J. Hauer, A.V. Stier

Review of Scientific Instruments 91 (12), 123101 (2020).

Show Abstract

We present diffraction-limited photocurrent (PC) microscopy in the visible spectral range based on broadband excitation and an inherently phase-stable common-path interferometer. The excellent path-length stability guarantees high accuracy without the need for active feedback or post-processing of the interferograms. We illustrate the capabilities of the setup by recording PC spectra of a bulk GaAs device and compare the results to optical transmission data.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0023543

Turing Meets Circuit Theory: Not Every Continuous-Time LTI System Can be Simulated on a Digital Computer

H. Boche, V. Pohl

IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I-Regular Papers 67 (12), 5051-5064 (2020).

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Solving continuous problems on digital computers gives generally only approximations of the continuous solutions. It is therefore crucial that the error between the continuous solution and the digital approximation can effectively be controlled. This paper investigates the possibility of simulating linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems on Turing machines. It is shown that there exist elementary LTI systems for which an admissible and computable input signal results in a non-computable output signal. For these LTI systems, the paper gives sharp characterizations of input spaces such that the output is guaranteed to be computable. The second part of the paper discusses the computability of the impulse and step response of LTI systems. It is shown that the computability of the step response implies not the computability of the impulse response. Moreover, there exist impulse responses which cannot be computed from the transfer function using the inverse Laplace transform. Finally, the paper gives a stronger version of a classical non-computability result, showing that there exist admissible and computable initial values for the wave equation so that the solution cannot be computed at certain points in space and time.

DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2020.3018619

Crux of Using the Cascaded Emission of a Three-Level Quantum Ladder System to Generate Indistinguishable Photons

E. Scholl, L. Schweickert, L. Hanschke, K.D. Zeuner, F. Sbresny, T. Lettner, R. Trivedi, M. Reindl, S.F.C. da Silva, R. Trotta, J.J. Finley, J. Vuckovic, K. Mueller, A. Rastelli, V. Zwiller, K.D. Jons

Physical Review Letters 125 (23), 233605 (2020).

Show Abstract

We investigate the degree of indistinguishability of cascaded photons emitted from a three-level quantum ladder system; in our case the biexciton-exciton cascade of semiconductor quantum dots. For the three-level quantum ladder system we theoretically demonstrate that the indistinguishability is inherently limited for both emitted photons and determined by the ratio of the lifetimes of the excited and intermediate states. We experimentally confirm this finding by comparing the quantum interference visibility of noncascaded emission and cascaded emission from the same semiconductor quantum dot. Quantum optical simulations produce very good agreement with the measurements and allow us to explore a large parameter space. Based on our model, we propose photonic structures to optimize the lifetime ratio and overcome the limited indistinguishability of cascaded photon emission from a three-level quantum ladder system.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.233605

Dynamical formation of a magnetic polaron in a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet

A. Bohrdt, F. Grusdt, M. Knap

New Journal of Physics 22 (12), 123023 (2020).

Show Abstract

Tremendous recent progress in the quantum simulation of the Hubbard model paves the way to controllably study doped antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. Motivated by these experimental advancements, we numerically study the real-time dynamics of a single hole created in an antiferromagnet on a square lattice, as described by the t-J model. Initially, the hole spreads ballistically with a velocity proportional to the hopping matrix element. At intermediate to long times, the dimensionality as well as the spin background determine the hole dynamics. A hole created in the ground state of a two dimensional (2D) quantum antiferromagnet propagates again ballistically at long times but with a velocity proportional to the spin exchange coupling, showing the formation of a magnetic polaron. We provide an intuitive explanation of this dynamics in terms of a parton construction, which leads to a good quantitative agreement with the numerical tensor network state simulations. In the limit of infinite temperature and no spin exchange couplings, the dynamics can be approximated by a quantum random walk on a Bethe lattice with coordination number

z

x303;

4

Adding Ising interactions corresponds to an effective disordered potential, which can dramatically slow down the hole propagation, consistent with subdiffusive dynamics. The study of the hole dynamics paves the way for understanding the microscopic constituents of this strongly correlated quantum state.

DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/abcfee

Strict positivity and D-majorization

F. vom Ende

Linear & Multilinear Algebra (2020).

Show Abstract

Motivated by quantum thermodynamics, we first investigate the notion of strict positivity, that is, linear maps which map positive definite states to something positive definite again. We show that strict positivity is decided by the action on any full-rank state, and that the image of non-strictly positive maps lives inside a lower-dimensional subalgebra. This implies that the distance of such maps to the identity channel is lower bounded by one. The notion of strict positivity comes in handy when generalizing the majorization ordering on real vectors with respect to a positive vector d to majorization on square matrices with respect to a positive definite matrix D. For the two-dimensional case, we give a characterization of this ordering via finitely many trace norm inequalities and, moreover, investigate some of its order properties. In particular it admits a unique minimal and a maximal element. The latter is unique as well if and only if minimal eigenvalue of D has multiplicity one.

DOI: 10.1080/03081087.2020.1860887

Antiferromagnetic magnon pseudospin: Dynamics and diffusive transport

A. Kamra, T. Wimmer, H. Huebl, M. Althammer

Physical Review B 102 (17), 174445 (2020).

Show Abstract

We formulate a theoretical description of antiferromagnetic magnons and their transport in terms of an associated pseudospin. The need and strength of this formulation emerges from the antiferromagnetic eigenmodes being formed from superpositions of spin-up and -down magnons, depending on the material anisotropies. Consequently, a description analogous to that of spin-1/2 electrons is demonstrated while accounting for the bosonic nature of the antiferromagnetic eigenmodes. Introducing the concepts of a pseudospin chemical potential together with a pseudofield and relating magnon spin to pseudospin allows a consistent description of diffusive spin transport in antiferromagnetic insulators with any given anisotropies and interactions. Employing the formalism developed, we elucidate the general features of recent nonlocal spin transport experiments in antiferromagnetic insulators hosting magnons with different polarizations. The pseudospin formalism developed herein is valid for any pair of coupled bosons and is likely to be useful in other systems comprising interacting bosonic modes.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.174445

Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen

A. Grinin, A. Matveev, D. C. Yost, L. Maisenbacher, V. Wirthl, R. Pohl, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem

Science 370, 1061 (2020).

Show Abstract

We have performed two-photon ultraviolet direct frequency comb spectroscopy on the 1S-3S transition in atomic hydrogen to illuminate the so-called proton radius puzzle and to demonstrate the potential of this method. The proton radius puzzle is a significant discrepancy between data obtained with muonic hydrogen and regular atomic hydrogen that could not be explained within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. By combining our result [f1S-3S = 2,922,743,278,665.79(72) kilohertz] with a previous measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency, we obtained new values for the Rydberg constant [R∞ = 10,973,731.568226(38) per meter] and the proton charge radius [rp = 0.8482(38) femtometers]. This result favors the muonic value over the world-average data as presented by the most recent published CODATA 2014 adjustment.

DOI: 10.1126/science.abc7776

Dynamics and large deviation transitions of the XOR-Fredrickson-Andersen kinetically constrained model

L. Causer, I. Lesanovsky, M.C. Banuls, J.P. Garrahan

Physical Review E 102 (5), 052132 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study a one-dimensional classical stochastic kinetically constrained model (KCM) inspired by Rydberg atoms in their "facilitated" regime, where sites can flip only if a single of their nearest neighbors is excited. We call this model "XOR-FA" to distinguish it from the standard Fredrickson-Andersen (FA) model. We describe the dynamics of the XOR-FA model, including its relation to simple exclusion processes in its domain wall representation. The interesting relaxation dynamics of the XOR-FA is related to the prominence of large dynamical fluctuations that lead to phase transitions between active and inactive dynamical phases as in other KCMs. By means of numerical tensor network methods we study in detail such transitions in the dynamical large deviation regime.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.102.052132

Extending Quantum Links: Modules for Fiber- and Memory-Based Quantum Repeaters

P. van Loock, W. Alt, C. Becher, O. Benson, H. Boche, C. Deppe, J. Eschner, S. Höfling, D. Meschede, P. Michler, F. Schmidt, H. Weinfurter.

Advancing Quantum Technologies - Chances and Challenges Advanced Quantum Technologies, (2020).

Show Abstract

Elementary building blocks for quantum repeaters based on fiber channels and memory stations are analyzed. Implementations are considered for three different physical platforms, for which suitable components are available: quantum dots, trapped atoms and ions, and color centers in diamond. The performances of basic quantum repeater links for these platforms are evaluated and compared, both for present‐day, state‐of‐the‐art experimental parameters as well as for parameters that can in principle be reached in the future. The ultimate goal is to experimentally explore regimes at intermediate distances—up to a few 100 km—in which the repeater‐assisted secret key transmission rates exceed the maximal rate achievable via direct transmission. Two different protocols are considered, one of which is better adapted to the higher source clock rate and lower memory coherence time of the quantum dot platform, while the other circumvents the need of writing photonic quantum states into the memories in a heralded, nondestructive fashion. The elementary building blocks and protocols can be connected in a modular form to construct a quantum repeater system that is potentially scalable to large distances.

DOI: 10.1002/qute.201900141

Interacting bosonic flux ladders with a synthetic dimension: Ground-state phases and quantum quench dynamics

M. Buser, D. Hubig, U. Schollwoeck, L. Tarruell, F. Heidrich-Meisner

Physical Review A 102 (5), 053314 (2020).

Show Abstract

Flux ladders constitute the minimal setup enabling a systematic understanding of the rich physics of interacting particles subjected simultaneously to strong magnetic fields and a lattice potential. In this paper, the ground-state phase diagram of a flux-ladder model is mapped out using extensive density-matrix renormalization-group simulations. The emphasis is put on parameters which can be experimentally realized exploiting the internal states of potassium atoms as a synthetic dimension. The focus is on accessible observables such as the chiral current and the leg-population imbalance. Considering a particle filling of one boson per rung, we report the existence of a Mott-insulating Meissner phase as well as biased-ladder phases on top of superfluids and Mott insulators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that quantum quenches from suitably chosen initial states can be used to probe the equilibrium properties in the transient dynamics. Concretely, we consider the instantaneous turning on of hopping matrix elements along the rungs or legs in the synthetic flux-ladder model, with different initial particle distributions. We show that clear signatures of the biased-ladder phase can be observed in the transient dynamics. Moreover, the behavior of the chiral current in the transient dynamics is discussed. The results presented in this paper provide guidelines for future implementations of flux ladders in experimental setups exploiting a synthetic dimension.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.102.053314

Ultrathin catalyst-free InAs nanowires on silicon with distinct 1D sub-band transport properties

F. del Giudice, J. Becker, C. de Rose, M. Doeblinger, D. Ruhstorfer, L. Suomenniemi, J. Treu, H. Riedl, J.J. Finley, G. Koblmueller

Nanoscale 12 (42), 21857-21868 (2020).

Show Abstract

Ultrathin InAs nanowires (NW) with a one-dimensional (1D) sub-band structure are promising materials for advanced quantum-electronic devices, where dimensions in the sub-30 nm diameter limit together with post-CMOS integration scenarios on Si are much desired. Here, we demonstrate two site-selective synthesis methods that achieve epitaxial, high aspect ratio InAs NWs on Si with ultrathin diameters below 20 nm. The first approach exploits direct vapor-solid growth to tune the NW diameter by interwire spacing, mask opening size and growth time. The second scheme explores a unique reverse-reaction growth by which the sidewalls of InAs NWs are thermally decomposed under controlled arsenic flux and annealing time. Interesting kinetically limited dependencies between interwire spacing and thinning dynamics are found, yielding diameters as low as 12 nm for sparse NW arrays. We clearly verify the 1D sub-band structure in ultrathin NWs by pronounced conductance steps in low-temperature transport measurements using back-gated NW-field effect transistors. Correlated simulations reveal single- and double degenerate conductance steps, which highlight the rotational hexagonal symmetry and reproduce the experimental traces in the diffusive 1D transport limit. Modelling under the realistic back-gate configuration further evidences regimes that lead to asymmetric carrier distribution and breakdown of the degeneracy depending on the gate bias.

DOI: 10.1039/d0nr05666a

Efficient Reduced-Scaling Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory with Cholesky-Decomposed Densities and an Attenuated Coulomb Metric

M. Glasbrenner, D. Graf, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 16 (11), 6856-6868 (2020).

Show Abstract

We present a novel, highly efficient method for the computation of second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) correlation energies, which uses the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation and local molecular orbitals obtained from a Cholesky decomposition of pseudodensity matrices (CDD), as in the RI-CDD-MP2 method developed previously in our group [Maurer, S. A.; Clin, L.; Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 140, 224112]. In addition, we introduce an attenuated Coulomb metric and subsequently redesign the RI-CDD-MP2 method in order to exploit the resulting sparsity in the three-center integrals. Coulomb and exchange energy contributions are computed separately using specialized algorithms. A simple, yet effective integral screening protocol based on Schwarz estimates is used for the MP2 exchange energy. The Coulomb energy computation and the preceding transformations of the three-center integrals are accelerated using a modified version of the natural blocking approach [Jung, Y.; Head-Gordon, M. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2006, 8, 2831-2840]. Effective subquadratic scaling for a wide range of molecule sizes is demonstrated in test calculations in conjunction with a low prefactor. The method is shown to enable cost-efficient MP2 calculations on large molecular systems with several thousand basis functions.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.0c00600

Coherent and Purcell-Enhanced Emission from Erbium Dopants in a Cryogenic High-Q Resonator

Benjamin Merkel, Alexander Ulanowski, and Andreas Reiserer

Physical Review X 10, 041025 (2020).

Show Abstract

The stability and outstanding coherence of dopants and other atomlike defects in tailored host crystals make them a leading platform for the implementation of distributed quantum information processing and sensing in quantum networks. Albeit the required efficient light-matter coupling can be achieved via the integration into nanoscale resonators, in this approach the proximity of interfaces is detrimental to the coherence of even the least-sensitive emitters. Here, we establish an alternative: By integrating a 19 μm thin crystal into a cryogenic Fabry-Perot resonator with a quality factor of 9×106, we achieve a two-level Purcell factor of 530(50). In our specific system, erbium-doped yttrium orthosilicate, this leads to a 59(6)-fold enhancement of the emission rate with an out-coupling efficiency of 46(8)%. At the same time, we demonstrate that the emitter properties are not degraded in our approach. We thus observe ensemble-averaged optical coherence up to 0.54(1) ms, which exceeds the 0.19(2) ms lifetime of dopants at the cavity field maximum. While our approach is also applicable to other solid-state quantum emitters, such as color centers in diamond, our system emits at the minimal-loss wavelength of optical fibers and thus enables coherent and efficient nodes for long-distance quantum networks.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.041025

Robust control of an ensemble of springs: Application to ion cyclotron resonance and two-level quantum systems

V. Martikyan, A. Devra, D. Guery-Odelin, S.J. Glaser, D. Sugny

Physical Review A 102 (5), 053104 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study the simultaneous control of an ensemble of springs with different frequencies by means of an adiabatic shortcut to adiabaticity and optimal processes. The linearity of the system allows us to derive analytical expressions for the control fields and the time evolution of the dynamics. We discuss the relative advantages of the different solutions. These results are applied in two different examples. For ion cyclotron resonance, we show how to optimally control ions by means of electric field. Using a mapping between spins and springs, we derive analytical shortcut protocols to realize robust and selective excitations of two-level quantum systems.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.102.053104

Quantitative comparison of magnon transport experiments in three-terminal YIG/Pt nanostructures acquired via dc and ac detection techniques

J. Gueckelhorn, T. Wimmer, S. Gepraegs, H. Huebl, R. Gross, M. Althammer

Applied Physics Letters 117 (18), 182401 (2020).

Show Abstract

All-electrical generation and detection of pure spin currents are promising ways toward controlling the diffusive magnon transport in magnetically ordered insulators. We quantitatively compare two measurement schemes, which allow us to measure the magnon spin transport in a three-terminal device based on a yttrium iron garnet thin film. We demonstrate that the dc charge current method based on the current reversal technique and the ac charge current method utilizing first and second harmonic lock-in detection can both efficiently distinguish between electrically and thermally injected magnons. In addition, both measurement schemes allow us to investigate the modulation of magnon transport induced by an additional dc charge current applied to the center modulator strip. However, while at a low modulator charge current both schemes yield identical results, we find clear differences above a certain threshold current. This difference originates from nonlinear effects of the modulator current on the magnon conductance.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0023307

Fracton-elasticity duality of two-dimensional superfluid vortex crystals: defect interactions and quantum melting

D.X. Nguyen, A. Gromov, S. Moroz

Scipost Physics 9 (5), 076 (2020).

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Employing the fracton-elastic duality, we develop a low-energy effective theory of a zero-temperature vortex crystal in a two-dimensional bosonic superfluid which naturally incorporates crystalline topological defects. We extract static interactions between these defects and investigate several continuous quantum transitions triggered by the Higgs condensation of vortex vacancies/interstitials and dislocations. We propose that the quantum melting of the vortex crystal towards the hexatic or smectic phase may occur via a pair of continuous transitions separated by an intermediate vortex supersolid phase.

DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.9.5.076

Variational Approach for Many-Body Systems at Finite Temperature

T. Shi, E. Demler, J.I. Cirac

Physical Review Letters 125 (18), 180602 (2020).

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We introduce an equation for density matrices that ensures a monotonic decrease of the free energy and reaches a fixed point at the Gibbs thermal. We build a variational approach for many-body systems that can be applied to a broad class of states, including all bosonic and fermionic Gaussian, as well as their generalizations obtained by unitary transformations, such as polaron transformations in electron-phonon systems. We apply it to the Holstein model on 20 x 20 and 50 x 50 square lattices, and predict phase separation between the superconducting and charge-density wave phases in the strong interaction regime.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.180602

Observation of a Smooth Polaron-Molecule Transition in a Degenerate Fermi Gas

G. Ness, C. Shkedrov, Y. Florshaim, O.K. Diessel, J. von Milczewski, R. Schmidt, Y. Sagi

Physical Review X 10, 041019 (2020).

Show Abstract

Understanding the behavior of an impurity strongly interacting with a Fermi sea is a long-standing challenge in many-body physics. When the interactions are short ranged, two vastly different ground states exist: a polaron quasiparticle and a molecule dressed by the majority atoms. In the single-impurity limit, it is predicted that at a critical interaction strength, a first-order transition occurs between these two states. Experiments, however, are always conducted in the finite temperature and impurity density regime. The fate of the polaron-to-molecule transition under these conditions, where the statistics of quantum impurities and thermal effects become relevant, is still unknown. Here, we address this question experimentally and theoretically. Our experiments are performed with a spin-imbalanced ultracold Fermi gas with tunable interactions. Utilizing a novel Raman spectroscopy combined with a high-sensitivity fluorescence detection technique, we isolate the quasiparticle contribution and extract the polaron energy, spectral weight, and the contact parameter. As the interaction strength is increased, we observe a continuous variation of all observables, in particular a smooth reduction of the quasiparticle weight as it goes to zero beyond the transition point. Our observation is in good agreement with a theoretical model where polaron and molecule quasiparticle states are thermally occupied according to their quantum statistics. At the experimental conditions, polaron states are hence populated even at interactions where the molecule is the ground state and vice versa. The emerging physical picture is thus that of a smooth transition between polarons and molecules and a coexistence of both in the region around the expected transition. Our findings establish Raman spectroscopy as a powerful experimental tool for probing the physics of mobile quantum impurities and shed new light on the competition between emerging fermionic and bosonic quasiparticles in non-Fermi-liquid phases.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.041019

Origin of Antibunching in Resonance Fluorescence

L. Hanschke, L. Schweickert, J.C.L. Carreno, E. Scholl, K.D. Zeuner, T. Lettner, E.Z. Casalengua, M. Reindl, S.F.C. da Silva, R. Trotta, J.J. Finley, A. Rastelli, E. del Valle, F.P. Laussy, V. Zwiller, K. Muller, K.D. Jons

Physical Review Letters 125 (17), 170402 (2020).

Show Abstract

Resonance fluorescence has played a major role in quantum optics with predictions and later experimental confirmation of nonclassical features of its emitted light such as antibunching or squeezing. In the Rayleigh regime where most of the light originates from the scattering of photons with subnatural linewidth, antibunching would appear to coexist with sharp spectral lines. Here, we demonstrate that this simultaneous observation of subnatural linewidth and antibunching is not possible with simple resonant excitation. Using an epitaxial quantum dot for the two-level system, we independently confirm the single-photon character and subnatural linewidth by demonstrating antibunching in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss type setup and using high-resolution spectroscopy, respectively. However, when filtering the coherently scattered photons with filter bandwidths on the order of the homogeneous linewidth of the excited state of the two-level system, the antibunching dip vanishes in the correlation measurement. Our observation is explained by antibunching originating from photon-interferences between the coherent scattering and a weak incoherent signal in a skewed squeezed state. This prefigures schemes to achieve simultaneous subnatural linewidth and antibunched emission.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.170402

Local probes for charge-neutral edge states in two-dimensional quantum magnets

J. Feldmeier, W. Natori, M. Knap, J. Knolle

Physical Review B 102 (13), 134423 (2020).

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The bulk-boundary correspondence is a defining feature of topological states of matter. However, for quantum magnets in two dimensions such as spin liquids or topological magnon insulators, a direct observation of topological surface states has proven challenging because of the charge-neutral character of the excitations. Here we propose spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy as a spin-sensitive local probe to provide direct information about charge-neutral topological edge states. We show how their signatures, imprinted in the local structure factor, can be extracted by specifically employing the strengths of existing technologies. As our main example, we determine the dynamical spin correlations of the Kitaev honeycomb model with open boundaries. We show that by contrasting conductance measurements of bulk and edge locations, one can extract direct signatures of the existence of fractionalized excitations and nontrivial topology. The broad applicability of this approach is corroborated by a second example of a kagome topological magnon insulator.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.134423

Disorder-free localization in a simple U (1) lattice gauge theory

I. Papaefstathiou, A. Smith, J. Knolle

Physical Review B 102 (16), 165132 (2020).

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Localization due to the presence of disorder has proven crucial for our current understanding of relaxation in isolated quantum systems. The many-body localized phase constitutes a robust alternative to the thermalization of complex interacting systems, but recently the importance of disorder has been brought into question. A number of disorder-free localization mechanisms have been put forward connected to local symmetries of lattice gauge theories. Here, starting from translationally invariant (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics, we modify the dynamics of the gauge field which allows us to construct a lattice model with a U(1) local gauge symmetry revealing a mechanism of disorder-free localization. We consider two different discretizations of the continuum model resulting in a free-fermion soluble model in one case and an interacting model in the other. We diagnose the localization of our translationally invariant model in the far-from-equilibrium dynamics following a global quantum quench.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.165132

A non-linear adiabatic theorem for the one-dimensional Landau-Pekar equations

R.L. Frank, Z. Gang

Journal of Functional Analysis 279 (7), 108631 (2020).

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We discuss a one-dimensional version of the Landau-Pekar equations, which are a system of coupled differential equations with two different time scales. We derive an approximation on the slow time scale in the spirit of a non-linear adiabatic theorem. Dispersive estimates for solutions of the Schrodinger equation with time-dependent potential are a key technical ingredient in our proof. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jfa.2020.108631

Sr2MoO4 and Sr2RuO4: Disentangling the Roles of Hund's and van Hove Physics

J. Karp, M. Bramberger, M. Grundner, U. Schollwoeck, A.J. Millis, M. Zingl

Physical Review Letters 125 (16), 166401 (2020).

Show Abstract

Sr2MoO4 is isostructural to the unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4 but with two electrons instead of two holes in the Mo/Ru-t(2g) orbitals. Both materials are Hund's metals, but while Sr2RuO4 has a van Hove singularity in close proximity to the Fermi surface, the van Hove singularity of Sr2MoO4 is far from the Fermi surface. By using density functional plus dynamical mean-field theory, we determine the relative influence of van Hove and Hund's metal physics on the correlation properties. We show that theoretically predicted signatures of Hund's metal physics occur on the occupied side of the electronic spectrum of Sr2MoO4, identifying Sr2MoO4 as an ideal candidate system for a direct experimental confirmation of the theoretical concept of Hund's metals via photoemission spectroscopy.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.166401

Valley-selective energy transfer between quantum dots in atomically thin semiconductors

A.S. Baimuratov, A. Hoegele

Scientific Reports 10 (1), 16971 (2020).

Show Abstract

In monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides the nonlocal nature of the effective dielectric screening leads to large binding energies of excitons. Additional lateral confinement gives rise to exciton localization in quantum dots. By assuming parabolic confinement for both the electron and the hole, we derive model wave functions for the relative and the center-of-mass motions of electronhole pairs, and investigate theoretically resonant energy transfer among excitons localized in two neighboring quantum dots. We quantify the probability of energy transfer for a direct- gap transition by assuming that the interaction between two quantum dots is described by a Coulomb potential, which allows us to include all relevant multipole terms of the interaction. We demonstrate the structural control of the valley-selective energy transfer between quantum dots.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-73688-8

Communication under Channel Uncertainty: An Algorithmic Perspective and Effective Construction

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor.

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 68, 6224 - 6239 (2020).

Show Abstract

The availability and quality of channel state information heavily influences the performance of wireless communication systems. For perfect channel knowledge, optimal signal processing and coding schemes have been well studied and often closed-form solutions are known. On the other hand, the case of imperfect channel information is less understood and closed-form characterizations of optimal schemes remain unknown in many cases. This paper approaches this question from a fundamental, algorithmic point of view by studying whether or not such optimal schemes can be constructed algorithmically in principle (without putting any constraints on the computational complexity of such algorithms). To this end, the concepts of compound channels and averaged channels are considered as models for channel uncertainty and block fading and it is shown that, although the compound channel and averaged channel themselves are computable channels, the corresponding capacities are not computable in general, i.e., there exists no algorithm (or Turing machine) that takes the channel as an input and computes the corresponding capacity. As an implication of this, it is then shown that for such compound channels, there are no effectively constructible optimal (i.e., capacity-achieving) signal processing and coding schemes possible. This is particularly noteworthy as such schemes must exist (since the capacity is known), but they cannot be effectively, i.e., algorithmically, constructed. Thus, there is a crucial difference between the existence of optimal schemes and their algorithmic constructability. In addition, it is shown that there is no search algorithm that can find the maximal number of messages that can be reliably transmitted for a fixed blocklength. Finally, the case of partial channel knowledge is studied in which either the transmitter or the receiver have perfect channel knowledge while the other part remains uncertain. It is shown that also in the cases of an informed encoder and informed decoder, the capacity remains non-computable in general and, accordingly, optimal signal processing and coding schemes are not effectively constructible.

DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2020.3027902

On the Alberti-Uhlmann Condition for Unital Channels

S. Chakraborty, D. Chruscinski, G. Sarbick, F. vom Ende

Quantum 4, (2020).

Show Abstract

We address the problem of existence of completely positive trace preserving (CPTP) maps between two sets of density matrices. We refine the result of Alberti and Uhlmann and derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unital channel between two pairs of qubit states which ultimately boils down to three simple inequalities.

Von Neumann Type Trace Inequalities for Schatten-Class Operators

G. Dirr, F. vom Ende

Journal of Operator Theory 84 (2), 323-338 (2020).

Show Abstract

We generalize von Neumann's well-known trace inequality, as well as related eigenvalue inequalities for Hermitian matrices, to Schatten-class operators between complex Hilbert spaces of infinite dimension. To this end, we exploit some recent results on the C-numerical range of Schatten-class operators. For the readers' convenience, we sketched the proof of these results in the Appendix.

DOI: 10.7900/jot.2019jun03.2241

Identification Capacity of Channels With Feedback: Discontinuity Behavior, Super-Activation, and Turing Computability

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor

IEEE Transactions on Informational Theory 66 (10), 6184-6199 (2020).

Show Abstract

The problem of identification is considered, in which it is of interest for the receiver to decide only whether a certain message has been sent or not, and the identification-feedback (IDF) capacity of channels with feedback is studied. The IDF capacity is shown to be discontinuous and super-additive for both deterministic and randomized encoding. For the deterministic IDF capacity the phenomenon of super-activation occurs, which is the strongest form of super-additivity. This is the first time that super-activation is observed for discrete memoryless channels. On the other hand, for the randomized IDF capacity, super-activation is not possible. Finally, the developed theory is studied from an algorithmic point of view by using the framework of Turing computability. The problem of computing the IDF capacity on a Turing machine is connected to problems in pure mathematics and it is shown that if the IDF capacity would be Turing computable, it would provide solutions to other problems in mathematics including Goldbach's conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis. However, it is shown that the deterministic and randomized IDF capacities are not Banach-Mazur computable. This is the weakest form of computability implying that the IDF capacity is not computable even for universal Turing machines. On the other hand, the identification capacity without feedback is Turing computable revealing the impact of the feedback: It transforms the identification capacity from being computable to non-computable.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2020.3005458

Variational Monte Carlo simulation with tensor networks of a pure Z(3) gauge theory in (2+1)D

P. Emonts, M.C. Banuls, I. Cirac, E. Zohar

Physical Review D 102 (7), 074501 (2020).

Show Abstract

Variational minimization of tensor network states enables the exploration of low energy states of lattice gauge theories. However, the exact numerical evaluation of high-dimensional tensor network states remains challenging in general. In [E. Zohar and J. I. Cirac, Phys. Rev. D 97, 034510 (2018)] it was shown how, by combining gauged Gaussian projected entangled pair states with a variational Monte Carlo procedure, it is possible to efficiently compute physical observables. In this paper we demonstrate how this approach can be used to investigate numerically the ground state of a lattice gauge theory. More concretely, we explicitly carry out the variational Monte Carlo procedure based on such contraction methods for a pure gauge KogutSusskind Hamiltonian with a Z(3) gauge field in two spatial dimensions. This is a first proof of principle to the method, which provides an inherent way to increase the number of variational parameters and can be readily extended to systems with physical fermions.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.102.074501

Quasiparticle Lifetime of the Repulsive Fermi Polaron

H.S. Adlong, W.E. Liu, F. Scazza, M. Zaccanti, N.D. Oppong, S. Foelling, M.M. Parish, J. Levinsen

Physical Review Letters 125 (13), 133401 (2020).

Show Abstract

We investigate the metastable repulsive branch of a mobile impurity coupled to a degenerate Fermi gas via short-range interactions. We show that the quasiparticle lifetime of this repulsive Fermi polaron can be experimentally probed by driving Rabi oscillations between weakly and strongly interacting impurity states. Using a time-dependent variational approach, we find that we can accurately model the impurity Rabi oscillations that were recently measured for repulsive Fermi polarons in both two and three dimensions. Crucially, our theoretical description does not include relaxation processes to the lower-lying attractive branch. Thus, the theory-experiment agreement demonstrates that the quasiparticle lifetime is dominated by many-body dephasing within the upper repulsive branch rather than by relaxation from the upper branch itself. Our findings shed light on recent experimental observations of persistent repulsive correlations, and have important consequences for the nature and stability of the strongly repulsive Fermi gas.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.133401

Echo Trains in Pulsed Electron Spin Resonance of a Strongly Coupled Spin Ensemble

S. Weichselbaumer, M. Zens, C. W. Zollitsch, M. S. Brandt, S. Rotter, R. Gross, and H. Huebl.

Physical Review Letters 125, 137701 (2020).

Show Abstract

We report on a novel dynamical phenomenon in electron spin resonance experiments of phosphorus donors. When strongly coupling the paramagnetic ensemble to a superconducting lumped element resonator, the coherent exchange between these two subsystems leads to a train of periodic, self-stimulated echoes after a conventional Hahn echo pulse sequence. The presence of these multiecho signatures is explained using a simple model based on spins rotating on the Bloch sphere, backed up by numerical calculations using the inhomogeneous Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103

Cross-polarisation ENDOR for spin-1 deuterium nuclei

I. Bejenke, R. Zeier, R. Rizzato, S.J. Glaser, M. Bennati

Molecular Physics 118 (18), e1763490 (2020).

Show Abstract

Efficient transfer of spin polarisation from electron to nuclear spins is emerging as a common target of several advanced spectroscopic experiments, ranging from sensitivity enhancement in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and methods for the detection of single molecules based on optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) to hyperfine spectroscopy. Here, we examine the feasibility of electron-nuclear cross-polarisation at a modified Hartmann-Hahn condition (called eNCP) for applications in ENDOR experiments with spin-1 deuterium nuclei, which are important targets in studies of hydrogen bonds in biological systems and materials. We have investigated a two-spin model system of deuterated malonic acid radicals in a single crystal. Energy matching conditions as well as ENDOR signal intensities were determined for a spin Hamiltonian under the effect of microwave and radiofrequency irradiation. The results were compared with numerical simulations and 94-GHz ENDOR experiments. The compelling agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results demonstrates that spin density operator formalism in conjunction with suitable approximations in regard to spin relaxation provides a satisfactory description of the polarisation transfer effect. The results establish a basis for future numerical optimizations of polarisation transfer experiments using multiple-pulse sequences or shaped pulses and for moving from model systems to real applications in disordered systems.

DOI: 10.1080/00268976.2020.1763490

Purity speed limit of open quantum systems from magic subspaces

V.A.A. Diaz, V. Martikyan, S.J. Glaser, D. Sugny

Physical Review A 102 (3), 033104 (2020).

Show Abstract

We introduce the concept of magic subspaces for the control of dissipative Nlevel quantum systems whose dynamics are governed by the Lindblad equation. For a given purity, these subspaces can be defined as the set of density matrices for which the rate of purity change is maximum or minimum. Adding fictitious control fields to the system so two density operators with the same purity can be connected in a very short time, we show that magic subspaces allow us to derive a purity speed limit, which only depends on the relaxation rates. We emphasize the superiority of this limit with respect to established bounds and its tightness in the case of a two-level dissipative quantum system. The link between the speed limit and the corresponding time-optimal solution is discussed in the framework of this study. Explicit examples are described for twoand three-level quantum systems.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.102.033104

Phase Diagram of the Quantum Random Energy Model

C. Manai, S. Warzel

Journal of Statistical Physics 180 (1-6), 654-664 (2020).

Show Abstract

We prove Goldschmidt's formula (Goldschmidt in Phys Rev B 47:4858-4861, 1990) for the free energy of the quantum random energy model. In particular, we verify the location of the first order and the freezing transition in the phase diagram. The proof is based on a combination of variational methods on the one hand, and bounds on the size of percolation clusters of large-deviation configurations in combination with simple spectral bounds on the hypercube's adjacency matrix on the other hand.

DOI: 10.1007/s10955-020-02492-5

Light-field and spin-orbit-driven currents in van der Waals materials

J. Kiemle, P. Zimmermann, A.W. Holleitner, C. Kastl

Nanophotonics 9 (9), 2693-2708 (2020).

Show Abstract

This review aims to provide an overview over recent developments of light-driven currents with a focus on their application to layered van der Waals materials. In topological and spin-orbit dominated van der Waals materials helicity-driven and light-field-driven currents are relevant for nanophotonic applications from ultrafast detectors to onchip current generators. The photon helicity allows addressing chiral and non-trivial surface states in topological systems, but also the valley degree of freedom in two-dimensional van der Waals materials. The underlying spinorbit interactions break the spatiotemporal electrodynamic symmetries, such that directed currents can emerge after an ultrafast laser excitation. Equally, the light-field of few-cycle optical pulses can coherently drive the transport of charge carriers with sub-cycle precision by generating strong and directed electric fields on the atomic scale. Ultrafast light-driven currents may open up novel perspectives at the interface between photonics and ultrafast electronics.

DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2020-0226

Calculating the spectral factorization and outer functions by sampling-based approximations-Fundamental limitations

H. Boche, V. Pohl

Journal of Approximation Theory 257, 105450 (2020).

Show Abstract

This paper considers the problem of approximating the spectral factor of continuous spectral densities with finite Dirichlet energy based on finitely many samples of these spectral densities. Although there exists a closed form expression for the spectral factor, this formula shows a very complicated behavior because of the non-linear dependency of the spectral factor from spectral density and because of a singular integral in this expression. Therefore approximation methods are usually applied to calculate the spectral factor.

It is shown that there exists no sampling-based method which depends continuously on the samples and which is able to approximate the spectral factor for all densities in this set. Instead, to any sampling-based approximation method there exists a large set of spectral densities so that the approximation method does not converge to the spectral factor for every spectral density in this set as the number of available sampling points is increased. The paper will also show that the same results hold for sampling-based algorithms for the calculation of the outer function in the theory of Hardy spaces. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jat.2020.105450

Resonant nanodiffraction x-ray imaging reveals role of magnetic domains in complex oxide spin caloritronics

P.G. Evans, S.D. Marks, S. Gepraegs, M. Dietlein, Y. Joly, M.Y. Dai, J.M. Hu, L. Bouchenoire, P.B.J. Thompson, T.U. Schulli, M.I. Richard, R. Gross, D. Carbone, D. Mannix

Science Advances 6 (40), eaba9351 (2020).

Show Abstract

Spin electronic devices based on crystalline oxide layers with nanoscale thicknesses involve complex structural and magnetic phenomena, including magnetic domains and the coupling of the magnetism to elastic and plastic crystallographic distortion. The magnetism of buried nanoscale layers has a substantial impact on spincaloritronic devices incorporating garnets and other oxides exhibiting the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). Synchrotron hard x-ray nanobeam diffraction techniques combine structural, elemental, and magnetic sensitivity and allow the magnetic domain configuration and structural distortion to be probed in buried layers simultaneously. Resonant scattering at the Gd L-2 edge of Gd3Fe5O12 layers yields magnetic contrast with both linear and circular incident x-ray polarization. Domain patterns facet to form low-energy domain wall orientations but also are coupled to elastic features linked to epitaxial growth. Nanobeam magnetic diffraction images reveal diverse magnetic microstructure within emerging SSE materials and a strong coupling of the magnetism to crystallographic distortion.

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aba9351

Turing meets circuit theory: Not every continuous-time LTI system can be simulated on a digital computer

H. Boche, V. Pohl.

IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 67, 5051 - 5064 (2020).

Show Abstract

Solving continuous problems on digital computers gives generally only approximations of the continuous solutions. It is therefore crucial that the error between the continuous solution and the digital approximation can effectively be controlled. This paper investigates the possibility of simulating linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems on Turing machines. It is shown that there exist elementary LTI systems for which an admissible and computable input signal results in a non-computable output signal. For these LTI systems, the paper gives sharp characterizations of input spaces such that the output is guaranteed to be computable. The second part of the paper discusses the computability of the impulse and step response of LTI systems. It is shown that the computability of the step response implies not the computability of the impulse response. Moreover, there exist impulse responses which cannot be computed from the transfer function using the inverse Laplace transform. Finally, the paper gives a stronger version of a classical non-computability result, showing that there exist admissible and computable initial values for the wave equation so that the solution cannot be computed at certain points in space and time.

DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2020.3018619

Effect of interfacial oxidation layer in spin pumping experiments on Ni80Fe20/SrIrO3 heterostructures

T.S. Suraj, M. Mueller, S. Gelder, S. Gepraegs, M. Opel, M. Weiler, K. Sethupathi, H. Huebl, R. Gross, M.S.R. Rao, M. ALthammer

Journal of Applied Physics 128 (8), 083903 (2020).

Show Abstract

SrIrO3 with its large spin-orbit coupling and low charge conductivity has emerged as a potential candidate for efficient spin-orbit torque magnetization control in spintronic devices. Here we report on the influence of an interfacial oxide layer on spin pumping experiments in Ni80Fe20 (NiFe)/SrIrO3 bilayer heterostructures. To investigate this scenario, we have carried out broadband ferromagnetic resonance (BBFMR) measurements, which indicate the presence of an interfacial antiferromagnetic oxide layer. We performed in-plane BBFMR experiments at cryogenic temperatures, which allowed us to simultaneously study dynamic spin pumping properties (Gilbert damping) and static magnetic properties (such as the effective magnetization and magnetic anisotropy). The results for NiFe/SrIrO3 bilayer thin films were analyzed and compared to those from a NiFe/NbN/SrIrO3 trilayer reference sample, where a spin-transparent, ultra-thin NbN layer was inserted to prevent the oxidation of NiFe. At low temperatures, we observe substantial differences in the magnetization dynamics parameters of these samples. In particular, the Gilbert damping in the NiFe/SrIrO3 bilayer sample drastically increases below 50 K, which can be well explained by enhanced spin fluctuations at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of the interfacial oxide layer. Our results emphasize that this interfacial oxide layer plays an important role for the spin current transport across the NiFe/SrIrO3 interface.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0021741

Topological phases in the Fermi-Hofstadter-Hubbard model on hybrid-space ladders

L. Stenzel, A.L.C. Hayward, U. Schollwoeck, F. Heidrich-Meisner

Physical Review A 102 (2), 023315 (2020).

Show Abstract

In recent experiments with ultracold atoms, both two-dimensional (2D) Chern insulators and one-dimensional topological charge pumps have been realized. Without interactions, both systems can be described by the same Hamiltonian, when some variables are being reinterpreted. In this paper, we study the relation of both models when Hubbard interactions are added, using the density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm. To this end, we express the fermionic Hofstadter model in a hybrid-space representation, and define a family of interactions, which connects 1D Hubbard charge pumps to 2D Hubbard Chern insulators. We study a three-band model at particle density rho = 2/3, where the topological quantization of the 1D charge pump changes from Chern number C = 2 to C = -1 as the interaction strength increases. We find that the C = -1 phase is robust when varying the interaction terms on narrow-width cylinders. However, this phase does not extend to the limit of the 2D Hofstadter-Hubbard model, which remains in the C = 2 phase. We discuss the existence of both topological phases for the largest cylinder circumferences that we can access numerically. We note the appearance of a ferromagnetic ground state between the strongly interacting 1D and 2D models. For this ferromagnetic state, one can understand the C = -1 phase from a band structure argument. Our method for measuring the Hall conductivity could similarly be realized in experiments: We compute the current response to a weak, linear potential, which is applied adiabatically. The Hall conductivity converges to integer-quantized values for large system sizes, corresponding to the system's Chern number.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.102.023315

Atomistic defects as single-photon emitters in atomically thin MoS2

K. Barthelmi, J. Klein, A. Hoetger, L. Sigl, F. Sigger, E. Mitterreiter, S. Rey, S. Gyger, M. Lorke, M. Florian, F. Jahnke, T: Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, V. Zwiller, K.D. Jons, U. Wurstbauer, C. Kastl, A. Weber-Bargioni, J.J. Finley, K. Mueller, A.W. Holleitner

Applied Physics Letters 117 (7), 070501 (2020).

Show Abstract

Precisely positioned and scalable single-photon emitters (SPEs) are highly desirable for applications in quantum technology. This Perspective discusses single-photon-emitting atomistic defects in monolayers of MoS2 that can be generated by focused He-ion irradiation with few nanometers positioning accuracy. We present the optical properties of the emitters and the possibilities to implement them into photonic and optoelectronic devices. We showcase the advantages of the presented emitters with respect to atomistic positioning, scalability, long (microsecond) lifetime, and a homogeneous emission energy within ensembles of the emitters. Moreover, we demonstrate that the emitters are stable in energy on a timescale exceeding several weeks and that temperature cycling narrows the ensembles' emission energy distribution.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0018557

Experimental probes of Stark many-body localization

S.R. Taylor, M. Schulz, F. Pollmann, R. Moessner

Physical Review B 102 (5), 054206 (2020).

Show Abstract

Recent work has focused on exploring many-body localization (MBL) in systems without quenched disorder: one such proposal is Stark MBL in which small perturbations to a strong linear potential yield localization. However, as with conventional MBL, it is challenging to experimentally distinguish between noninteracting localization and true MBL. In this paper, we show that several existing experimental probes, designed specifically to differentiate between these scenarios, work similarly in the Stark MBL setting. In particular, we show that a modified spin-echo response shows clear signs of a power-law decay for Stark MBL while quickly saturating for disorder-free Wannier-Stark localization. Furthermore, we observe the characteristic logarithmic-in-time spreading of quantum mutual information in the Stark MBL regime, and an absence of spreading in a noninteracting Stark-localized system. We also show that there are no significant differences in several existing MBL measures for a system consisting of soft-core bosons with repulsive on-site interactions. Lastly, we discuss why curvature or small disorder are needed for an accurate reproduction of MBL phenomenology and how this may be illustrated in experiment. This also connects with recent progress on Hilbert space fragmentation in "fractonic" models with a conserved dipole moment, and we suggest this as an auspicious platform for experimental investigations of these phenomena.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.054206

Entanglement dynamics of a many-body localized system coupled to a bath

E. Wybo, M. Knap, F. Pollmann

Physical Review B 102 (6), 064303 (2020).

Show Abstract

The combination of strong disorder and interactions in closed quantum systems can lead to many-body localization (MBL). However, this quantum phase is not stable when the system is coupled to a thermal environment. We investigate how MBL is destroyed in systems that are weakly coupled to a dephasive Markovian environment by focusing on their entanglement dynamics. We numerically study the third Renyi negativity R-3, a recently proposed entanglement proxy based on the negativity that captures the unbounded logarithmic growth in the closed case and that can be computed efficiently with tensor networks. We also show that the decay of R-3 follows a stretched exponential law, similarly to the imbalance, with, however, a smaller stretching exponent.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.064304

Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Quantum Spin-Orbital Liquid: Spectroscopic Signatures of Fermionic Magnons

W.M.H. Natori, J. Knolle

Physical Review Letters 125 (6), 067201 (2020).

Show Abstract

We provide an exact study of dynamical correlations for the quantum spin-orbital liquid phases of an SU(2)-symmetric Kitaev honeycomb lattice model. We show that the spin dynamics in this Kugel-Khomskii type model is exactly the density-density correlation function of S = 1 fermionic magnons, which could be probed in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments. We predict the characteristic signatures of spin-orbital fractionalization in inelastic scattering experiments and compare them to the ones of the spin-anisotropic Kitaev honeycomb spin liquid. In particular, the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering response shows a characteristic momentum dependence directly related to the dispersion of fermionic excitations. The neutron scattering cross section displays a mixed response of fermionic magnons as well as spin-orbital excitations. The latter has a bandwidth of broad excitations and a vison gap that is three times larger than that of the spin-1 = 2 Kitaev model.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.067201

Simulating lattice gauge theories within quantum technologies

M.C. Banuls, R. Blatt, J. Catani, A. Celi, J.I. Cirac, M. Dalmonte, L. Fallani, K. Jansen, M. Lewenstein, S: Montangero, C.A. Muschik, B. Reznik, E. Rico, L. Tagliacozzo, K. Van Acoleyen, F. Verstraete, U.J. Wiese, M. Wingate, K. Zakrzewski, P. Zoller

European Physical Journal D 47 (8), 165 (2020).

Show Abstract

Lattice gauge theories, which originated from particle physics in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), provide an important intellectual stimulus to further develop quantum information technologies. While one long-term goal is the reliable quantum simulation of currently intractable aspects of QCD itself, lattice gauge theories also play an important role in condensed matter physics and in quantum information science. In this way, lattice gauge theories provide both motivation and a framework for interdisciplinary research towards the development of special purpose digital and analog quantum simulators, and ultimately of scalable universal quantum computers. In this manuscript, recent results and new tools from a quantum science approach to study lattice gauge theories are reviewed. Two new complementary approaches are discussed: first, tensor network methods are presented - a classical simulation approach - applied to the study of lattice gauge theories together with some results on Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. Then, recent proposals for the implementation of lattice gauge theory quantum simulators in different quantum hardware are reported, e.g., trapped ions, Rydberg atoms, and superconducting circuits. Finally, the first proof-of-principle trapped ions experimental quantum simulations of the Schwinger model are reviewed.

DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2020-100571-8

Entanglement Hamiltonian of the 1+1-dimensional free, compactified boson conformal field theory

A. Roy, F. Pollmann, H, Saleur

Journal of Statistical Mechanics - Theory and Experiment 2020 (8), 083104 (2020).

Show Abstract

Entanglement or modular Hamiltonians play a crucial role in the investigation of correlations in quantum field theories. In particular, in 1 + 1 space-time dimensions, the spectra of entanglement Hamiltonians of conformal field theories (CFTs) for certain geometries are related to the spectra of the physical Hamiltonians of corresponding boundary CFTs. As a result, conformal invariance allows exact computation of the spectra of the entanglement Hamiltonians for these models. In this work, we perform this computation of the spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian for the free compactified boson CFT over a finite spatial interval. We compare the analytical results obtained for the continuum theory with numerical simulations of a lattice-regularized model for the CFT using density matrix renormalization group technique. To that end, we use a lattice regularization provided by superconducting quantum electronic circuits, built out of Josephson junctions and capacitors. Up to non-universal effects arising due to the lattice regularization, the numerical results are compatible with the predictions of the exact computations.

DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/aba498

Prethermalization of quantum systems interacting with non-equilibrium environments

A. Angles-Castillo, M.C. Banuls, A. Perez, I. De Vega

New Journal of Physics 22 (8), 083067 (2020).

Show Abstract

The usual paradigm of open quantum systems falls short when the environment is actually coupled to additional fields or components that drive it out of equilibrium. Here we explore the simplest such scenario, by considering a two level system coupled to a first thermal reservoir that in turn couples to a second thermal bath at a different temperature. We derive a master equation description for the system and show that, in this situation, the dynamics can be especially rich. In particular, we observe prethermalization, a transitory phenomenon in which the system initially approaches thermal equilibrium with respect to the first reservoir, but after a longer time converges to the thermal state dictated by the temperature of the second environment. Using analytical arguments and numerical simulations, we analyze the occurrence of this phenomenon, and how it depends on temperatures and coupling strengths. The phenomenology gets even richer if the system is placed between two such non-equilibrium environments. In this case, the energy current through the system may exhibit transient features and even switch direction, before the system eventually reaches a non-equilibrium steady state.

DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aba7f4

Constrained random phase approximation of the effective Coulomb interaction in lattice models of twisted bilayer graphene

T.I. Vanhala, L. Pollet

Physical Review B 102 (3), 035154 (2020).

Show Abstract

Recent experiments on twisted bilayer graphene show the urgent need for establishing a low-energy lattice model for the system. We use the constrained random phase approximation to study the interaction parameters of such models, taking into account screening from the moire bands left outside the model space. Based on an atomic-scale tight-binding model, we numerically compute the polarization function and study its behavior for different twist angles. We discuss an approximation scheme which allows us to compute the screened interaction, in spite of the very large number of atoms in the unit cell. We find that the polarization has three different momentum regimes. For small momenta, the polarization is quadratic, leading to a linear dielectric function expected for a two-dimensional dielectric material. For large momenta, the polarization becomes independent of the twist angle and approaches that of uncoupled graphene layers. In the intermediate-momentum regime, the dependence on the twist angle is strong. Close to the largest magic angle the dielectric function peaks at a momentum of 1/(4 nm), attaining values of 18-25, depending on the exact model, meaning very strong screening at intermediate distances. We also calculate the effective screened Coulomb interaction in real space and give estimates for the on-site and extended interaction terms for the recently developed hexagonal-lattice model. For freestanding twisted bilayer graphene, the effective interaction decays slower than 1/r at intermediate distances r, while it remains essentially unscreened at large enough r.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.035154

Absence of Superconductivity in the Pure Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

M.P. Qin, C.M. Chung, H. Shi, E. Vitali, C. Hubig, U. Schollwoeck, S.R. White, S.W. Zhang

Physical Review X 10 (3), 031016 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study the superconducting pairing correlations in the ground state of the doped Hubbard model-in its original form without hopping beyond nearest neighbor or other perturbing parameters-in two dimensions at intermediate to strong coupling and near optimal doping. The nature of such correlations has been a central question ever since the discovery of cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Despite unprecedented effort and tremendous progress in understanding the properties of this fundamental model, a definitive answer to whether the ground state is superconducting in the parameter regime most relevant to cuprates has proved exceedingly difficult to establish. In this work, we employ two complementary, state-of-the-art, many-body computational methods-constrained-path (CP) auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods-deploying the most recent algorithmic advances in each. Systematic and detailed comparisons between the two methods are performed. The DMRG is extremely reliable on small width cylinders, where we use it to validate the AFQMC. The AFQMC is then used to study wide systems as well as fully periodic systems, to establish that we have reached the thermodynamic limit. The ground state is found to be nonsuperconducting in the moderate to strong coupling regime in the vicinity of optimal hole doping.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.031016

Parton theory of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy spectra in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators

A. Bohrdt, E: Demler, F. Pollmann, M. Knap, F. Grusdt

Physical Review B 102 (3), 035139 (2020).

Show Abstract

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has revealed peculiar properties of mobile dopants in correlated antiferromagnets (AFMs). But, describing them theoretically, even in simplified toy models, remains a challenge. Here, we study ARPES spectra of a single mobile hole in the t-J model. Recent progress in the microscopic description of mobile dopants allows us to use a geometric decoupling of spin and charge fluctuations at strong couplings, from which we conjecture a one-to-one relation of the one-dopant spectral function and the spectrum of a constituting spinon in the undoped parent AFM. We thoroughly test this hypothesis for a single hole doped into a two-dimensional Heisenberg AFM by comparing our semianalytical predictions to previous quantum Monte Carlo results and our large-scale time-dependent matrix product state calculations of the spectral function. Our conclusion is supported by a microscopic trial wave function describing spinon-chargon bound states, which captures the momentum and t/J dependence of the quasiparticle residue. From our conjecture we speculate that ARPES measurements in the pseudogap phase of cuprates may directly reveal the Dirac-fermion nature of the constituting spinons. Specifically, we demonstrate that our trial wave function provides a microscopic explanation for the sudden drop of spectral weight around the nodal point associated with the formation of Fermi arcs, assuming that additional frustration suppresses long-range AFM ordering. We benchmark our results by studying the crossover from two to one dimension, where spinons and chargons are confined and deconfined, respectively.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.035139

Field-induced reorientation of helimagnetic order in Cu2OSeO3 probed by magnetic force microscopy

P. Milde, L. Koehler, E. Neuber, P. Ritzinger, M. Garst, A. Bauer, C. Pfleiderer, H. Berger, L.M. Eng

Physical Review B 102 (2), 024426 (2020).

Show Abstract

Cu2OSeO3 is an insulating skyrmion-host material with a magnetoelectric coupling giving rise to an electric polarization with a characteristic dependence on the magnetic-field (H) over right arrow. We report a magnetic force microscopy imaging of the helical real-space spin structure on the surface of a bulk single crystal of Cu2OSeO3. In the presence of a magnetic field, the helimagnetic order, in general, reorients and acquires a homogeneous component of the magnetization, resulting in a conical arrangement at larger fields. We investigate this reorientation process at a temperature of 10 K for fields close to the crystallographic < 110 > direction that involves a phase transition at H-c1. Experimental evidence is presented for the formation of magnetic domains in real space as well as for the microscopic origin of relaxation events that accompany the reorientation process. In addition, the electric polarization is measured by means of Kelvin-probe force microscopy. We show that the characteristic field dependency of the electric polarization originates in this helimagnetic reorientation process. Our experimental results are well described by an effective Landau theory previously invoked for MnSi, that captures the competition between magnetocrystalline anisotropies and Zeeman energy.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.024426

A subradiant optical mirror formed by a single structured atomic layer

J. Rui, D.V. Wei, A. Rubio-Abadal, S. Hollerith, J. Zeiher, D.M. Stamper-Kurn, C. Gross, I. Bloch

Nature 583 (7816), 369–374 (2020).

Show Abstract

Versatile interfaces with strong and tunable light-matter interactions are essential for quantum science(1)because they enable mapping of quantum properties between light and matter(1). Recent studies(2-10)have proposed a method of controlling light-matter interactions using the rich interplay of photon-mediated dipole-dipole interactions in structured subwavelength arrays of quantum emitters. However, a key aspect of this approach-the cooperative enhancement of the light-matter coupling strength and the directional mirror reflection of the incoming light using an array of quantum emitters-has not yet been experimentally demonstrated. Here we report the direct observation of the cooperative subradiant response of a two-dimensional square array of atoms in an optical lattice. We observe a spectral narrowing of the collective atomic response well below the quantum-limited decay of individual atoms into free space. Through spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements, we show that the array acts as an efficient mirror formed by a single monolayer of a few hundred atoms. By tuning the atom density in the array and changing the ordering of the particles, we are able to control the cooperative response of the array and elucidate the effect of the interplay of spatial order and dipolar interactions on the collective properties of the ensemble. Bloch oscillations of the atoms outside the array enable us to dynamically control the reflectivity of the atomic mirror. Our work demonstrates efficient optical metamaterial engineering based on structured ensembles of atoms(4,8,9)and paves the way towards controlling many-body physics with light(5,6,11)and light-matter interfaces at the single-quantum level(7,10).

A single two-dimensional array of atoms trapped in an optical lattice shows a tunable cooperative subradiant optical response, acting as a single-monolayer optical mirror with controllable reflectivity.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2463-x

On the Algorithmic Solvability of Spectral Factorization and Applications

H. Boche, V. Pohl.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 66, 4574-4592 (2020).

Show Abstract

Spectral factorization is an operation which appears in many different engineering applications. This paper studies whether spectral factorization can be algorithmically computed on an abstract machine (a Turing machine). It is shown that there exist computable spectral densities with very good analytic properties (i.e. smooth with finite energy) such that the corresponding spectral factor cannot be determined on a Turing machine. Further, it will be proved that it is impossible to decide algorithmically whether or not a given computable density possesses a computable spectral factor. This negative result has consequences for applications of spectral factorization in computer-aided design, because there it is necessary that this problem be decidable. Conversely, this paper will show that if the logarithm of a computable spectral density belongs to certain Sobolev space of sufficiently smooth functions, then the spectral factor is always computable. As an application, the paper discusses the possibility of calculating the optimal causal Wiener filter on an abstract machine.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2020.2968028

Vibrational Dressing in Kinetically Constrained Rydberg Spin Systems

P.P Mazza, R. Schmidt, I. Lesanovsky

Physicla Review Letters 125 (3), 033602 (2020).

Show Abstract

Quantum spin systems with kinetic constraints have become paradigmatic for exploring collective dynamical behavior in many-body systems. Here we discuss a facilitated spin system which is inspired by recent progress in the realization of Rydberg quantum simulators. This platform allows to control and investigate the interplay between facilitation dynamics and the coupling of spin degrees of freedom to lattice vibrations. Developing a minimal model, we show that this leads to the formation of polaronic quasiparticle excitations which are formed by many-body spin states dressed by phonons. We investigate in detail the properties of these quasiparticles, such as their dispersion relation, effective mass, and the quasiparticle weight. Rydberg lattice quantum simulators are particularly suited for studying this phonon-dressed kinetically constrained dynamics as their exaggerated length scales permit the site-resolved monitoring of spin and phonon degrees of freedom.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.033602

Quantum advantage with noisy shallow circuits

S. Bravyi, D. Gosset, R. König and M. Tomamichel

Nature Physics (2020).

Show Abstract

As increasingly sophisticated prototypes of quantum computers are being developed, a pressing challenge is to find computational problems that can be solved by an intermediate-scale quantum computer, but are beyond the capabilities of existing classical computers. Previous work in this direction has introduced computational problems that can be solved with certainty by quantum circuits of depth independent of the input size (so-called ‘shallow’ circuits) but cannot be solved with high probability by any shallow classical circuit. Here we show that such a separation in computational power persists even when the shallow quantum circuits are restricted to geometrically local gates in three dimensions and corrupted by noise. We also present a streamlined quantum algorithm that is shown to achieve a quantum advantage in a one-dimensional geometry. The latter may be amenable to experimental implementation with the current generation of quantum computers.

DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0948-z

Plaquette versus ordinary d-wave pairing in the t '-Hubbard model on a width-4 cylinder

C.M. Chung, M.P. Qin, S.W. Zhang, U. Schollwoeck, S.R. White

Physical Review B 102 (4), 041106 (2020).

Show Abstract

The Hubbard model and its extensions are important microscopic models for understanding high-Tc superconductivity in cuprates. In the model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping t' (the t'-Hubbard model), pairing is strongly influenced by t'. In particular, a recent study on a width-4 cylinder observed quasi-long-range superconducting order, associated with a negative t', which was taken to imply superconductivity in the two-dimensional (2D) limit. In this work we study more carefully pairing in the width-4 t'-Hubbard model. We show that in this specific system, the pairing symmetry with t' < 0 is not the ordinary d-wave one would expect in the 2D limit. Instead we observe a so-called plaquette d-wave pairing. We show that the plaquette d-wave or its extension is difficult to generalize in other geometries, for example a 4-leg ladder with open boundaries or a width-6 cylinder. We find that a negative t' suppresses the conventional d-wave, leading to plaquette pairing. In contrast, a different t '' coupling acting diagonally on the plaquettes suppresses plaquette pairing, leading to conventional d-wave pairing.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.041106

Robust Bilayer Charge Pumping for Spin- and Density-Resolved Quantum Gas Microscopy

J. Koepsell, S. Hirthe, D. Bourgund, P. Sompet, J. Vijayan, G. Salomon, C. Gross, I. Bloch

Physical Review Letters 125 (1), 010403 (2020).

Show Abstract

Quantum gas microscopy has emerged as a powerful new way to probe quantum many-body systems at the microscopic level. However, layered or efficient spin-resolved readout methods have remained scarce as they impose strong demands on the specific atomic species and constrain the simulated lattice geometry and size. Here we present a novel high-fidelity bilayer readout, which can be used for full spin- and density-resolved quantum gas microscopy of two-dimensional systems with arbitrary geometry. Our technique makes use of an initial Stern-Gerlach splitting into adjacent layers of a highly stable vertical superlattice and subsequent charge pumping to separate the layers by 21 mu m. This separation enables independent high-resolution images of each layer. We benchmark our method by spin- and density-resolving two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard systems. Our technique furthermore enables the access to advanced entropy engineering schemes, spectroscopic methods, or the realization of tunable bilayer systems.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.010403

Arbitrarily Varying Wiretap Channels with and without Non-Causal Side Information at the Jammer

C.R. Janda, E.A. Jorswieck, M. Wiese, H. Boche

IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS) (2020).

Show Abstract

We investigate the Arbitrarily Varying Wiretap Channel (AVWC) with non-causal side information at the jammer for the case that there exists a best channel to the eavesdropper. Non-causal side information means that codewords are known at an active adversary before they are transmitted. By considering the maximum error criterion, we allow also messages to be known at the jammer before the corresponding codeword is transmitted. A multi letter formula for the common randomness secrecy capacity is derived. Furthermore, we compare our results to the random code secrecy capacity for the cases of maximum error criterion but without non-causal side information at the jammer, maximum error criterion with non-causal side information of the messages at the jammer, and the case of average error criterion without non-causal side information at the jammer.

Locally-triggered hydrophobic collapse induces global interface self-cleaning in van-der-Waals heterostructures at room-temperature

S. Wakolbinger, F.R. Geisenhof, F. Winterer, S. Palmer, J.G. Crimmann, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Trixler, R.T. Weitz

2D Materials 7 (3), 035002 (2020).

Show Abstract

Mutual relative orientation and well defined, uncontaminated interfaces are the key to obtain van-der-Waals heterostacks with defined properties. Even though the van-der-Waals forces are known to promote the 'self-cleaning' of interfaces, residue from the stamping process, which is often found to be trapped between the heterostructure constituents, can interrupt the interlayer interaction and therefore the coupling. Established interfacial cleaning methods usually involve high-temperature steps, which are in turn known to lead to uncontrolled rotations of layers within fragile heterostructures. Here, we present an alternative method feasible at room temperature. Using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM), we locally control the activation of interlayer attractive forces, resulting in the global removal of contaminants from the interface (i.e. the contaminants are also removed in regions several mu m away from the line touched by the AFM tip). By testing combinations of various hydrophobic van-der-Waals materials, mild temperature treatments, and by observing the temporal evolution of the contaminant removal process, we identify that the AFM tip triggers a dewetting-induced hydrophobic collapse and the van-der-Waals interaction is driving the cleaning process. We anticipate that this process is at the heart of the known 'self-cleaning' mechanism. Our technique can be utilized to controllably establish interlayer close coupling between a stack of van-der-Waals layers, and additionally allows to pattern and manipulate heterostructures locally for example to confine material into nanoscopic pockets between two van-der-Waals materials.

DOI: 10.1088/2053-1583/ab7bfc

Hall viscosity and conductivity of two-dimensional chiral superconductors

F. Rose, O. Golan, S: Moroz

Scipost Physics 9 (1), 006 (2020).

Show Abstract

We compute the Hall viscosity and conductivity of non-relativistic two-dimensional chi-ral superconductors, where fermions pair due to a short-range attractive potential, e.g. p + ip pairing, and interact via a long-range repulsive Coulomb force. For a logarithmic Coulomb potential, the Hall viscosity tensor contains a contribution that is singular at low momentum, which encodes corrections to pressure induced by an external shear strain. Due to this contribution, the Hall viscosity cannot be extracted from the Hall conductivity in spite of Galilean symmetry. For mixed-dimensional chiral superconductors, where the Coulomb potential decays as inverse distance, we find an intermediate behavior between intrinsic two-dimensional superconductors and superfluids. These results are obtained by means of both effective and microscopic field theory.

DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.9.1.006

Realization of an anomalous Floquet topological system with ultracold atoms

K. Wintersperger, C. Braun, F. Nur Ünal, A. Eckardt, M. Di Liberto, N. Goldman, I. Bloch & M. Aidelsburger

Nature Physics (2020).

Show Abstract

Coherent control via periodic modulation, also known as Floquet engineering, has emerged as a powerful experimental method for the realization of novel quantum systems with exotic properties. In particular, it has been employed to study topological phenomena in a variety of different platforms. In driven systems, the topological properties of the quasienergy bands can often be determined by standard topological invariants, such as Chern numbers, which are commonly used in static systems. However, due to the periodic nature of the quasienergy spectrum, this topological description is incomplete and new invariants are required to fully capture the topological properties of these driven settings. Most prominently, there are two-dimensional anomalous Floquet systems that exhibit robust chiral edge modes, despite all Chern numbers being equal to zero. Here we realize such a system with bosonic atoms in a periodically driven honeycomb lattice and infer the complete set of topological invariants from energy gap measurements and local Hall deflections.

DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0949-y

Identification Capacity of Channels with Feedback: Discontinuity Behavior, Super-Activation, and Turing Computability

R.F. Schaefer, H. Boche, H.V. Poor.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory (2020).

Show Abstract

The problem of identification is considered, in which it is of interest for the receiver to decide only whether a certain message has been sent or not, and the identification-feedback (IDF) capacity of channels with feedback is studied. The IDF capacity is shown to be discontinuous and super-additive for both deterministic and randomized encoding. For the deterministic IDF capacity the phenomenon of super-activation occurs, which is the strongest form of super-additivity. This is the first time that super-activation is observed for discrete memoryless channels. On the other hand, for the randomized IDF capacity, super-activation is not possible. Finally, the developed theory is studied from an algorithmic point of view by using the framework of Turing computability. The problem of computing the IDF capacity on a Turing machine is connected to problems in pure mathematics and it is shown that if the IDF capacity would be Turing computable, it would provide solutions to other problems in mathematics including Goldbach’s conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis. However, it is shown that the deterministic and randomized IDF capacities are not Banach-Mazur computable. This is the weakest form of computability implying that the IDF capacity is not computable even for universal Turing machines. On the other hand, the identification capacity without feedback is Turing computable revealing the impact of the feedback: It transforms the identification capacity from being computable to non-computable.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2020.3005458

Spin Hall magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic insulators

S. Gepraegs, M. Opel, J. Fischer, O. Gomonay, p. Schwenke, M. Althammer, H. Huebl, R. Gross

Journal of Applied Physics 127 (24), (2020).

Show Abstract

Antiferromagnetic materials promise improved performance for spintronic applications as they are robust against external magnetic field perturbations and allow for faster magnetization dynamics compared to ferromagnets. The direct observation of the antiferromagnetic state, however, is challenging due to the absence of a macroscopic magnetization. Here, we show that the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) is a versatile tool to probe the antiferromagnetic spin structure via simple electrical transport experiments by investigating the easy-plane antiferromagnetic insulators

alpha -

Fe 2

O 3 (hematite) and NiO in bilayer heterostructures with a Pt heavy-metal top electrode. While rotating an external magnetic field in three orthogonal planes, we record the longitudinal and the transverse resistivities of Pt and observe characteristic resistivity modulations consistent with the SMR effect. We analyze both their amplitude and phase and compare the data to the results from a prototypical collinear ferrimagnetic

Y 3

Fe 5

O 12/Pt bilayer. The observed magnetic field dependence is explained in a comprehensive model, based on two magnetic sublattices and taking into account magnetic field-induced modifications of the domain structure. Our results show that the SMR allows us to understand the spin configuration and to investigate magnetoelastic effects in antiferromagnetic multi-domain materials. Furthermore, in

alpha

- Fe 2

O 3/Pt bilayers, we find an unexpectedly large SMR amplitude of

2.5 x

10

- 3, twice as high as for prototype

Y 3

Fe 5

O 12/Pt bilayers, making the system particularly interesting for room-temperature antiferromagnetic spintronic applications.

DOI: 10.1063/5.0009529

Atomistic Positioning of Defects in Helium Ion Treated Single-Layer MoS2

E. Mitterreiter, B. Schuler, K.A. Cochrane, U. Wurstbauer, A: Weber-Bargioni, C. Kastl, A.W. Holleitner

Nano Letters 20 (6), 4437-4444 (2020).

Show Abstract

Structuring materials with atomic precision is the ultimate goal of nanotechnology and is becoming increasingly relevant as an enabling technology for quantum electronics/spintronics and quantum photonics. Here, we create atomic defects in monolayer MoS2 by helium ion (He-ion) beam lithography with a spatial fidelity approaching the single-atom limit in all three dimensions. Using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we confirm the formation of individual point defects in MoS2 upon He-ion bombardment and show that defects are generated within 9 nm of the incident helium ions. Atom-specific sputtering yields are determined by analyzing the type and occurrence of defects observed in high-resolution STM images and compared with with Monte Carlo simulations. Both theory and experiment indicate that the He-ion bombardment predominantly generates sulfur vacancies.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01222

Multipartite entanglement analysis from random correlations

L. Knips, J. Dziewior, W. Klobus, W. Laskowski, T. Paterek, P.J. Shadbolt, H. Weinfurter, J.D.A. Meinecke

NPJ Quantum Information 6 (1), 51 (2020).

Show Abstract

Quantum entanglement is usually revealed via a well aligned, carefully chosen set of measurements. Yet, under a number of experimental conditions, for example in communication within multiparty quantum networks, noise along the channels or fluctuating orientations of reference frames may ruin the quality of the distributed states. Here, we show that even for strong fluctuations one can still gain detailed information about the state and its entanglement using random measurements. Correlations between all or subsets of the measurement outcomes and especially their distributions provide information about the entanglement structure of a state. We analytically derive an entanglement criterion for two-qubit states and provide strong numerical evidence for witnessing genuine multipartite entanglement of three and four qubits. Our methods take the purity of the states into account and are based on only the second moments of measured correlations. Extended features of this theory are demonstrated experimentally with four photonic qubits. As long as the rate of entanglement generation is sufficiently high compared to the speed of the fluctuations, this method overcomes any type and strength of localized unitary noise.

DOI: 10.1038/s41534-020-0281-5

Quantum East Model: Localization, Nonthermal Eigenstates, and Slow Dynamics

N. Pancotti, G. Giudice, J.I. Cirac, J.P. Garrahan, M.C. Banuls

Physical Review X 10 (2), 021051 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study in detail the properties of the quantum East model, an interacting quantum spin chain inspired by simple kinetically constrained models of classical glasses. Through a combination of analytics, exact diagonalization, and tensor-network methods, we show the existence of a transition, from a fast to a slow thermalization regime, which manifests itself throughout the spectrum. On the slow side, by exploiting the localization of the ground state and the form of the Hamiltonian, we explicitly construct a large (exponential in size) number of nonthennal states that become exact finite-energy-density eigenstates in the large size limit, as expected for a true phase transition. A "superspin" generalization allows us to fmd a further large class of area-law states proved to display very slow relaxation. These states retain memory of their initial conditions for extremely long times. Our numerical analysis reveals that the localization properties are not limited to the ground state and that many eigenstates have large overlap with product states and can be approximated well by matrix product states at arbitrary energy densities. The mechanism that induces localization to the ground state, and hence the nonthermal behavior of the system, can be extended to a wide range of models including a number of simple spin chains. We discuss implications of our results for slow thermalization and nonergodicity more generally in disorder-free systems with constraints, and we give numerical evidence that these results may be extended to two-dimensional systems.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.021051

Quantum East Model: Localization, Nonthermal Eigenstates, and Slow Dynamics

Pancotti N., Giudice G., Cirac J.I., Garrahan J.P., Banuls M.C.

Physical Review X 10 (2), 021051 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study in detail the properties of the quantum East model, an interacting quantum spin chain inspired by simple kinetically constrained models of classical glasses. Through a combination of analytics, exact diagonalization, and tensor-network methods, we show the existence of a transition, from a fast to a slow thermalization regime, which manifests itself throughout the spectrum. On the slow side, by exploiting the localization of the ground state and the form of the Hamiltonian, we explicitly construct a large (exponential in size) number of nonthennal states that become exact finite-energy-density eigenstates in the large size limit, as expected for a true phase transition. A "superspin" generalization allows us to fmd a further large class of area-law states proved to display very slow relaxation. These states retain memory of their initial conditions for extremely long times. Our numerical analysis reveals that the localization properties are not limited to the ground state and that many eigenstates have large overlap with product states and can be approximated well by matrix product states at arbitrary energy densities. The mechanism that induces localization to the ground state, and hence the nonthermal behavior of the system, can be extended to a wide range of models including a number of simple spin chains. We discuss implications of our results for slow thermalization and nonergodicity more generally in disorder-free systems with constraints, and we give numerical evidence that these results may be extended to two-dimensional systems.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.021051

Message Transmission over Classical Quantum Channels with a Jammer with Side Information: Correlation as Resource, Common Randomness Generation

H. Boche, M. Cai, N. Cai.

Journal of Mathematical Physics 61, 062201 (2020).

Show Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the capacity of a general model for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum channels (AVCQCs) when the sender and the receiver use correlation as a resource. In this general model, a jammer has side information about the channel input. We determine a single letter formula for the correlation assisted capacity. As an application of our main result, we determine the correlation assisted common randomness generation capacity. In this scenario, the two channel users have access to correlation as a resource and further use an AVCQC with an informed jammer for additional discussion. The goal is to create common randomness between the two channel users. We also analyze these capacity formulas when only a small number of signals from the correlation are available. For the correlation assisted common randomness generation capacity, we show an additional interesting property: For a sufficient amount of “public communication,” common randomness generation capacity is Turing computable; however, without this public communication constraint, the correlation assisted common randomness generation capacity is, in general, not Turing computable. Furthermore, we show that even without knowing the capacity formula of the deterministic capacity using the maximal error criterion, we can show that it is impossible to evaluate the performance algorithmically on any current or future digital computer.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5092179

Dynamical Variational Approach to Bose Polarons at Finite Temperatures

D. Dzsotjan, R. Schmidt, M. Fleischhauer

Physical Review Letters 124 (22), 223401 (2020).

Show Abstract

We discuss the interaction of a mobile quantum impurity with a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms at finite temperature. To describe the resulting Bose polaron formation we develop a dynamical variational approach applicable to an initial thermal gas of Bogoliubov phonons. We study the polaron formation after switching on the interaction, e.g., by a radio-frequency (rf) pulse from a noninteracting to an interacting state. To treat also the strongly interacting regime, interaction terms beyond the Frohlich model are taken into account. We calculate the real-time impurity Green's function and discuss its temperature dependence. Furthermore we determine the rf absorption spectrum and find good agreement with recent experimental observations. We predict temperature-induced shifts and a substantial broadening of spectral lines. The analysis of the real-time Green's function reveals a crossover to a linear temperature dependence of the thermal decay rate of Bose polarons as unitary interactions are approached.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.223401

Message transmission over classical quantum channels with a jammer with side information: Correlation as resource, common randomness generation

H. Boche, M. Cai, N. Cai

Journal of Mathematical Physics 61 (6), 062201 (2020).

Show Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the capacity of a general model for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum channels (AVCQCs) when the sender and the receiver use correlation as a resource. In this general model, a jammer has side information about the channel input. We determine a single letter formula for the correlation assisted capacity. As an application of our main result, we determine the correlation assisted common randomness generation capacity. In this scenario, the two channel users have access to correlation as a resource and further use an AVCQC with an informed jammer for additional discussion. The goal is to create common randomness between the two channel users. We also analyze these capacity formulas when only a small number of signals from the correlation are available. For the correlation assisted common randomness generation capacity, we show an additional interesting property: For a sufficient amount of "public communication," common randomness generation capacity is Turing computable; however, without this public communication constraint, the correlation assisted common randomness generation capacity is, in general, not Turing computable. Furthermore, we show that even without knowing the capacity formula of the deterministic capacity using the maximal error criterion, we can show that it is impossible to evaluate the performance algorithmically on any current or future digital computer.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5092179

Resource-Aware Control via Dynamic Pricing for Congestion Game with Finite-Time Guarantees

E. Tampubolon, H. Ceribasic, H. Boche

IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (2020).

Show Abstract

Congestion game is a widely used model for modern networked applications. A central issue in such applications is that the selfish behavior of the participants may result in resource overloading and negative externalities for the system participants. In this work, we propose a pricing mechanism that guarantees the sub-linear increase of the time-cumulative violation of the resource load constraints. The feature of our method is that it is resource-centric in the sense that it depends on the congestion state of the resources and not on specific characteristics of the system participants. This feature makes our mechanism scalable, flexible, and privacy-preserving. Moreover, we show by numerical simulations that our pricing mechanism has no significant effect on the agents' welfare in contrast to the improvement of the capacity violation.

Floquet Prethermalization in a Bose-Hubbard System

A. Rubio-Abadal, M. Ippoliti, S. Hollerith, D. Wei, J, Rui, S.L. Sondhi, V. Khemani, C. Gross, I. Bloch

Physical Review X 10 (2), 021044 (2020).

Show Abstract

Periodic driving has emerged as a powerful tool in the quest to engineer new and exotic quantum phases. While driven many-body systems are generically expected to absorb energy indefinitely and reach an infinite-temperature state, the rate of heating can be exponentially suppressed when the drive frequency is large compared to the local energy scales of the system-leading to long-lived "prethermal" regimes. In this work, we experimentally study a bosonic cloud of ultracold atoms in a driven optical lattice and identify such a prethermal regime in the Bose-Hubbard model. By measuring the energy absorption of the cloud as the driving frequency is increased, we observe an exponential-in-frequency reduction of the heating rate persisting over more than 2 orders of magnitude. The tunability of the lattice potentials allows us to explore one- and two-dimensional systems in a range of different interacting regimes. Alongside the exponential decrease, the dependence of the heating rate on the frequency displays features characteristic of the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model, whose understanding is additionally supported by numerical simulations in one dimension. Our results show experimental evidence of the phenomenon of Floquet prethermalization and provide insight into the characterization of heating for driven bosonic systems.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.021044

Discrete interactions between a few interlayer excitons trapped at a MoSe2-WSe2 heterointerface

M. Kremser, M. Brotons-Gisbert, J. Knoerzer, J. Gueckelhorn, M. Meyer, M. Barbone, A.V. Stier, B.D. Gerardot, K. Mueller, J.J. Finley

NPJ 2D Materials and Applications 4 (1), 8 (2020).

Show Abstract

Inter-layer excitons (IXs) in hetero-bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) represent an exciting emergent class of long-lived dipolar composite bosons in an atomically thin, near-ideal two-dimensional (2D) system. The long-range interactions that arise from the spatial separation of electrons and holes can give rise to novel quantum, as well as classical multi-particle correlation effects. Indeed, first indications of exciton condensation have been reported recently. In order to acquire a detailed understanding of the possible many-body effects, the fundamental interactions between individual IXs have to be studied. Here, we trap a tunable number of dipolar IXs (N-IX 1-5) within a nanoscale confinement potential induced by placing a MoSe2-WSe2 hetero-bilayer (HBL) onto an array of SiO2 nanopillars. We control the mean occupation of the IX trap via the optical excitation level and observe discrete sharp-line emission from different configurations of interacting IXs. The intensities of these features exhibit characteristic near linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic and quintic power dependencies, which allows us to identify them as different multiparticle configurations with N-IX 1-5. We directly measure the hierarchy of dipolar and exchange interactions as N-IX increases. The interlayer biexciton (N-IX = 2) is found to be an emission doublet that is blue-shifted from the single exciton by Delta E = (8.4 +/- 0.6) meV and split by 2J = (1.2 +/- 0.5) meV. The blueshift is even more pronounced for triexcitons ((12.4 +/- 0.4) meV), quadexcitons ((15.5 +/- 0.6) meV) and quintexcitons ((18.2 +/- 0.8) meV). These values are shown to be mutually consistent with numerical modelling of dipolar excitons confined to a harmonic trapping potential having a confinement lengthscale in the range l approximate to 3 nm. Our results contribute to the understanding of interactions between IXs in TMD hetero-bilayers at the discrete limit of only a few excitations and represent a key step towards exploring quantum correlations between IXs in TMD hetero-bilayers.

DOI: 10.1038/s41699-020-0141-3

Range-Separated Density-Functional Theory in Combination with the Random Phase Approximation: An Accuracy Benchmark

A. Kreppel, D. Graf, H. Laqua, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 16 (5), 2985-2994 (2020).

Show Abstract

A formulation of range-separated random phase approximation (RPA) based on our efficient omega-CDGD-RI-RPA [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2018, 14, 2505] method and a large scale benchmark study are presented. By application to the GMTKN55 data set, we obtain a comprehensive picture of the performance of range-separated RPA in general main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions. The results show that range-separated RPA performs stably over the broad range of molecular chemistry included in the GMTKN55 set. It improves significantly over semilocal DFT but it is still less accurate than modern dispersion corrected double-hybrid functionals. Furthermore, range-separated RPA shows a faster basis set convergence compared to standard full-range RPA making it a promising applicable approach with only one empirical parameter.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.9b01294

Theory of exciton-electron scattering in atomically thin semiconductors

C. Fey, P. Schmelcher, A. Imamoglu, R. Schmidt

Physical Review B 101 (19), 195417 (2020).

Show Abstract

The realization of mixtures of excitons and charge carriers in van der Waals materials presents a frontier for the study of the many-body physics of strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixtures. In order to derive an effective low-energy model for such systems, we develop an exact diagonalization approach based on a discrete variable representation that predicts the scattering and bound state properties of three charges in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. From the solution of the quantum mechanical three-body problem we thus obtain the bound state energies of excitons and trions within an effective mass model which are in excellent agreement with quantum Monte Carlo predictions. The diagonalization approach also gives access to excited states of the three-body system. This allows us to predict the scattering phase shifts of electrons and excitons that serve as input for a low-energy theory of interacting mixtures of excitons and charge carriers at finite density. To this end we derive an effective exciton-electron scattering potential that is directly applicable for quantum Monte Carlo or diagrammatic many-body techniques. As an example, we demonstrate the approach by studying the many-body physics of exciton Fermi polarons in transition-metal dichalcogenides, and we show that finite-range corrections have a substantial impact on the optical absorption spectrum. Our approach can be applied to a plethora of many-body phenomena realizable in atomically thin semiconductors ranging from exciton localization to induced superconductivity.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.195417

Robust Pricing Mechanism for Resource Sustainability under Privacy Constraint in Competitive Online Learning Multi-Agent Systems

E. Tampubolon, H. Boche

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 8733-8737 (2020).

Show Abstract

We consider the problem of resource congestion control for competing online learning agents under privacy and security constraints. Based on the non-cooperative game as the model for agents' interaction and the noisy online mirror ascent as the model for the rationality of the agents, we propose a novel pricing mechanism that gives the agents incentives for sustainable use of the resources. An advantage of our method is that it is privacy-preserving in the sense that mainly the resource congestion serves as an orientation for our pricing mechanism, in place of the agents' preference and state. Moreover, our method is robust against adversary agents' feedback in the form of the noisy gradient. We present the following result of our theoretical investigation: In case that the feedback noise is persistent, and for several choices of the intrinsic parameter (the learning rate) of the agents and of the mechanism parameters (the learning rate of the price-setters, their progressivity, and the extrinsic price sensitivity of the agents), we show that the accumulative violation of the resource constraints of the resulted iterates is sub-linear w.r.t the time horizon. To support our theoretical findings, we provide some numerical simulations.

Optimal Sampling Rate and Bandwidth of Bandlimited Signals - An Algorithmic Perspective

H. Boche, U.J. Moenich

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 5905-5909 (2020).

Show Abstract

The bandwidth of a bandlimited signal is a key quantity that is relevant in numerous applications. For example, it determines the minimum sampling rate that is necessary to reconstruct a bandlimited signal from its samples. In this paper we study if it is possible to algorithmically determine the actual bandwidth of a bandlimited signal. We prove that this is not possible in general, because there exist bandlimited computable signals, which have a bandwidth that is not computable. To this end we employ the concept of Turing computability, which provides a theoretical model that describes the fundamental limits of any practically realizable digital hardware, such as CPUs, DSPs, or FPGAs. Further, we answer the weaker question if it can be algorithmically answered whether the bandwidth of a given signal is larger than a predefined value.

Effective Approximation of Bandlimited Signals and Their Samples

H. Boche, U.J. Moenich

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 5590-5594 (2020).

Show Abstract

Shannon's sampling theorem is of high importance in signal processing, because it links the continuous-time and discrete-time worlds. For bandlimited signals we can switch from one domain into the other without loosing information. In this paper we analyze if and how this transition affects the computability of the signal. Computability is important in order that the approximation error can be controlled. We show that the computability of the signal is not always preserved. Further, we provide a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the computability of the continuous-time signal, and a simple canonical algorithm that can be used for the computation.

Computing Hilbert Transform and Spectral Factorization for Signal Spaces of Smooth Functions

H. Boche, V. Pohl

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 5300-5304 (2020).

Show Abstract

Although the Hilbert transform and the spectral factorization are of central importance in signal processing, both operations can generally not be calculated in closed form. Therefore, algorithmic solutions are prevalent which provide an approximation of the true solution. Then it is important to effectively control the approximation error of these approximate solutions. This paper characterizes for both operations precisely those signal spaces of differentiable functions for which such an effective control of the approximation error is possible. In other words, the paper provides a precise characterization of signal spaces of smooth functions on which these two operations are computable on Turing machines.

Robust Online Mirror Saddle-Point Method for Constrained Resource Allocation

E. Tampubolon, H. Boche

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 4970-4974 (2020).

Show Abstract

Online-learning literature has focused on designing algorithms that ensure sub-linear growth of the cumulative long-term constraint violations. The drawback of this guarantee is that strictly feasible actions may cancel out constraint violations on other time slots. For this reason, we introduce a new performance measure, whose particular instance is the cumulative positive part of the constraint violations. We propose a class of non-causal algorithms for online-decision making, which guarantees, in slowly changing environments, sub-linear growth of this quantity despite noisy first-order feedback. Furthermore, we demonstrate by numerical experiments the performance gain of our method relative to state of the art.

Can Every System Be Simulated on a Digital Computer?

H. Boche, V. Pohl

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 1783-1787 (2020).

Show Abstract

A Turing machine is a model describing the fundamental limits of any realizable computer, digital signal processor (DSP), or field programmable gate array (FPGA). This paper shows that there exist very simple linear time-invariant (LTI) systems which can not be simulated on a Turing machine. In particular, this paper considers the linear system described by the voltage-current relation of an ideal capacitor. For this system, it is shown that there exist continuously differentiable and computable input signals such that the output signal is a continuous function which is not computable. Moreover, for this particular system, we present sharp results characterizing computable input signals which guarantee that the output signal is computable. Additionally, it is shown that the computability of the step response of an LTI system does not necessarily imply that the impulse response is computable.

Computability of the Peak Value of Bandlimited Signals

H. Boche, U.J. Moenich

International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 5280-5284 (2020).

Show Abstract

In this paper we study the peak value problem, i.e., the task of computing the peak value of a bandlimited signal from its samples. The peak value problem is important, for example, in communications, where the peak value of the transmit signal has to be controlled in order that the amplifier is not overloaded, which would generate out-of-band radiation. We prove that the peak value of a computable bandlimited signal is computable on digital hardware if oversampling is used. The computability ensures that the approximation error can be effectively controlled. Further, we provide an algorithm that can be used to perform this computation and prove that oversampling is indeed necessary, because there exist signals for which the peak value problem cannot be algorithmically solved without oversampling. Hence, without oversampling the peak value of such signals cannot be computed on any digital hardware, including DSPs, FPGAs, and CPUs.

Denial-of-Service Attacks on Communication Systems: Detectability and Jammer Knowledge

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor.

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 68, 3754-3768 (2020).

Show Abstract

Wireless communication systems are inherently vulnerable to intentional jamming. In this paper, two classes of such jammers are considered: those with partial and full knowledge. While the first class accounts for those jammers that know the encoding and decoding function, the latter accounts for those that are further aware of the actual transmitted message. Of particular interest are so-called denial-of-service (DoS) attacks in which the jammer is able to completely disrupt any transmission. Accordingly, it is of crucial interest for the legitimate users to detect such adversarial DoS attacks. This paper develops a detection framework based on Turing machines. Turing machines have no limitations on computational complexity and computing capacity and storage and can simulate any given algorithm. For both scenarios of a jammer with partial and full knowledge, it is shown that there exists no Turing machine which can decide whether or not a DoS attack is possible for a given channel and the corresponding decision problem is undecidable. On the other hand, it is shown for both scenarios that it is possible to algorithmically characterize those channels for which a DoS attack is not possible. This means that it is possible to detect those scenarios in which the jammer is not able to disrupt the communication. For all other channels, the Turing machine does not stop and runs forever making this decision problem semidecidable. Finally, it is shown that additional coordination resources such as common randomness make the communication robust against such attacks.

DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2020.2993165

Spin structure relation to phase contrast imaging of isolated magnetic Bloch and Neel skyrmions

S. Poellath, T. Lin, N. Lei, W. Zhao, J. Zweck, C.H. Back

Ultramicroscopy 212, 112973 (2020).

Show Abstract

Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates for future storage devices with a large data density. A great variety of materials have been found that host skyrmions up to the room-temperature regime. Lorentz microscopy, usually performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), is one of the most important tools for characterizing skyrmion samples in real space. Using numerical calculations, this work relates the phase contrast in a TEM to the actual magnetization profile of an isolated Neel or Bloch skyrmion, the two most common skyrmion types. Within the framework of the used skyrmion model, the results are independent of skyrmion size and wall width and scale with sample thickness for purely magnetic specimens. Simple rules are provided to extract the actual skyrmion configuration of pure Bloch or Neel skyrmions without the need of simulations. Furthermore, first differential phase contrast (DPC) measurements on Neel skyrmions that meet experimental expectations are presented and showcase the described principles. The work is relevant for material sciences where it enables the engineering of skyrmion profiles via convenient characterization.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.112973

Flexible low-voltage high-frequency organic thin-film transistors

J.W. Borchert, U. Zschieschang, F. Letzkus, M. Giorgio, R.T. Weitz, M. Caironi, J.N. Burghartz, S. Ludwigs, H. Klauk

Science Advances 6 (21), eaaz5156 (2020).

Show Abstract

The primary driver for the development of organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) over the past few decades has been the prospect of electronics applications on unconventional substrates requiring low-temperature processing. A key requirement for many such applications is high-frequency switching or amplification at the low operating voltages provided by lithium-ion batteries (similar to 3 V). To date, however, most organic-TFT technologies show limited dynamic performance unless high operating voltages are applied to mitigate high contact resistances and large parasitic capacitances. Here, we present flexible low-voltage organic TFTs with record static and dynamic performance, including contact resistance as small as 10 Omega.cm, on/off current ratios as large as 10(10), subthreshold swing as small as 59 mV/decade, signal delays below 80 ns in inverters and ring oscillators, and transit frequencies as high as 21 MHz, all while using an inverted coplanar TFT structure that can be readily adapted to industry-standard lithographic techniques.

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz5156

Intermolecular forces and correlations mediated by a phonon bath

X. Li, E. Yakaboylu, G. Bighin, R. Schmidt, M. Lemeshko, A. Deuchert

Journal of Chemical Physics 152 (16), 164302 (2020).

Show Abstract

Inspired by the possibility to experimentally manipulate and enhance chemical reactivity in helium nanodroplets, we investigate the effective interaction and the resulting correlations between two diatomic molecules immersed in a bath of bosons. By analogy with the bipolaron, we introduce the biangulon quasiparticle describing two rotating molecules that align with respect to each other due to the effective attractive interaction mediated by the excitations of the bath. We study this system in different parameter regimes and apply several theoretical approaches to describe its properties. Using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we investigate the dependence of the effective intermolecular interaction on the rotational state of the two molecules. In the strong-coupling regime, a product-state ansatz shows that the molecules tend to have a strong alignment in the ground state. To investigate the system in the weak-coupling regime, we apply a one-phonon excitation variational ansatz, which allows us to access the energy spectrum. In comparison to the angulon quasiparticle, the biangulon shows shifted angulon instabilities and an additional spectral instability, where resonant angular momentum transfer between the molecules and the bath takes place. These features are proposed as an experimentally observable signature for the formation of the biangulon quasiparticle. Finally, by using products of single angulon and bare impurity wave functions as basis states, we introduce a diagonalization scheme that allows us to describe the transition from two separated angulons to a biangulon as a function of the distance between the two molecules.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5144759

Entanglement and its relation to energy variance for local one-dimensional Hamiltonians

M.C. Banuls, D.A. Huse, J.I. Cirac

Physical Review B 101 (14), 144305 (2020).

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We explore the relation between the entanglement of a pure state and its energy variance for a local one-dimensional Hamiltonian, as the system size increases. In particular, we introduce a construction which creates a matrix product state of arbitrarily small energy variance delta(2) for N spins, with bond dimension scaling as root ND01/delta, where D-0 > 1 is a constant. This implies that a polynomially increasing bond dimension is enough to construct states with energy variance that vanishes with the inverse of the logarithm of the system size. We run numerical simulations to probe the construction on two different models and compare the local reduced density matrices of the resulting states to the corresponding thermal equilibrium. Our results suggest that the spatially homogeneous states with logarithmically decreasing variance, which can be constructed efficiently, do converge to the thermal equilibrium in the thermodynamic limit, while the same is not true if the variance remains constant.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.144305

Quantum Many-Body Scars in Optical Lattices

H.Z. Zhao, J. Vovrosh, F. Mintert, J. Knolle

Physical Review Letters 124 (16), 160604 (2020).

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The concept of quantum many-body scars has recently been put forward as a route to describe weak ergodicity breaking and violation of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. We propose a simple setup to generate quantum many-body scars in a doubly modulated Bose-Hubbard system which can be readily implemented in cold atomic gases. The dynamics are shown to be governed by kinetic constraints which appear via density-assisted tunneling in a high-frequency expansion. We find the optimal driving parameters for the kinetically constrained hopping which leads to small isolated subspaces of scared eigenstates. The experimental signatures and the transition to fully thermalizing behavior as a function of driving frequency are analyzed.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.160604

Universal superposition codes: Capacity regions of compound quantum broadcast channel with confidential messages

H. Boche, G. Janssen, S. Saeedinaeeni.

Journal of Mathematical Physics 61, 042204 (2020).

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We derive universal codes for transmission of broadcast and confidential messages over classical-quantum–quantum and fully quantum channels. These codes are robust to channel uncertainties considered in the compound model. To construct these codes, we generalize random codes for transmission of public messages to derive a universal superposition coding for the compound quantum broadcast channel. As an application, we give a multi-letter characterization of regions corresponding to the capacity of the compound quantum broadcast channel for transmitting broadcast and confidential messages simultaneously. This is done for two types of broadcast messages, one called public and the other common.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5139622

Markovianity of an emitter coupled to a structured spin-chain bath

J. Roos, J.I. Cirac, M.C. Banuls

Physical Review A 101 (4), 042114 (2020).

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We analyze the dynamics of a spin-1/2 subsystem coupled to a spin chain. We simulate numerically the full quantum many-body system for various sets of parameters and initial states of the chain, and characterize the divisibility of the subsystem dynamics, i.e., whether it is Markovian and can be described by a (time-dependent) master equation. We identify regimes in which the subsystem admits such Markovian description, despite the many-body setting, and provide insight about why the same is not possible in other regimes. Interestingly, coupling the subsystem at the edge, instead of the center, of the chain gives rise to qualitatively distinct behavior.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.101.042114

The C-numerical range in infinite dimensions

G. Dirr, F. vom Ende

Linear & Multilinear Algebra 68 (4), 867-868 (2020).

DOI: 10.1080/03081087.2019.1604624

Universal superposition codes: Capacity regions of compound quantum broadcast channel with confidential messages

H. Boche, G. Janssen, S. Saeedinaeeni

Journal of Mathematical Physics 61 (4), (2020).

Show Abstract

We derive universal codes for transmission of broadcast and confidential messages over classical-quantum-quantum and fully quantum channels. These codes are robust to channel uncertainties considered in the compound model. To construct these codes, we generalize random codes for transmission of public messages to derive a universal superposition coding for the compound quantum broadcast channel. As an application, we give a multi-letter characterization of regions corresponding to the capacity of the compound quantum broadcast channel for transmitting broadcast and confidential messages simultaneously. This is done for two types of broadcast messages, one called public and the other common.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5139622

Confined Phases of One-Dimensional Spinless Fermions Coupled to Z(2) Gauge Theory

U. Borla, R. Verresen, F. Grusdt, S. Moroz

Physical Review Letters 124 (12), 120503 (2020).

Show Abstract

We investigate a quantum many-body lattice system of one-dimensional spinless fermions interacting with a dynamical Z(2) gauge field. The gauge field mediates long-range attraction between fermions resulting in their confinement into bosonic dimers. At strong coupling we develop an exactly solvable effective theory of such dimers with emergent constraints. Even at generic coupling and fermion density, the model can be rewritten as a local spin chain. Using the density matrix renormalization group the system is shown to form a Luttinger liquid, indicating the emergence of fractionalized excitations despite the confinement of lattice fermions. In a finite chain we observe the doubling of the period of Friedel oscillations which paves the way towards experimental detection of confinement in this system. We discuss the possibility of a Mott phase at the commensurate filling 2/3.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.120503

Statistical localization: From strong fragmentation to strong edge modes

T. Rakovszky, P. Sala, R. Verresen, M. Knap, F. Pollmann

Physical Review B 101 (12), 125126 (2020).

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Certain disorder-free Hamiltonians can be nonergodic due to a strong fragmentation of the Hilbert space into disconnected sectors. Here, we characterize such systems by introducing the notion of "statistically localized integrals of motion" (SLIOM), whose eigenvalues label the connected components of the Hilbert space. SLIOMs are not spatially localized in the operator sense, but appear localized to subextensive regions when their expectation value is taken in typical states with a finite density of particles. We illustrate this general concept on several Hamiltonians, both with and without dipole conservation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there exist perturbations which destroy these integrals of motion in the bulk of the system while keeping them on the boundary. This results in statistically localized strong zero modes, leading to infinitely long-lived edge magnetizations along with a thermalizing bulk, constituting the first example of such strong edge modes in a nonintegrable model. We also show that in a particular example, these edge modes lead to the appearance of topological string order in a certain subset of highly excited eigenstates. Some of our suggested models can be realized in Rydberg quantum simulators.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.125126

Thermodynamics of a hierarchical mixture of cubes

S. Jansen.

Journal of Statistical Physics (2020).

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We investigate a toy model for phase transitions in mixtures of incompressible droplets. The model consists of non-overlapping hypercubes in Zd of sidelengths 2j, j?N0. Cubes belong to an admissible set B such that if two cubes overlap, then one is contained in the other. Cubes of sidelength 2j have activity zj and density ?j. We prove explicit formulas for the pressure and entropy, prove a van-der-Waals type equation of state, and invert the density-activity relations. In addition we explore phase transitions for parameter-dependent activities zj(?)=exp(2dj??Ej). We prove a sufficient criterion for absence of phase transition, show that constant energies Ej?? lead to a continuous phase transition, and prove a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a first-order phase transition.

DOI: 10.1007/s10955-020-02531-1

Probing Thermalization through Spectral Analysis with Matrix Product Operators

Y.L. Yang, S. Iblisdir, J.I. Cirac, M.C. Banuls

Physical Review Letters 124 (10), 100602 (2020).

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We combine matrix product operator techniques with Chebyshev polynomial expansions and present a method that is able to explore spectral properties of quantum many-body Hamiltonians. In particular, we show how this method can be used to probe thermalization of large spin chains without explicitly simulating their time evolution, as well as to compute full and local densities of states. The performance is illustrated with the examples of the Ising and PXP spin chains. For the nonintegrable Ising chain, our findings corroborate the presence of thermalization for several initial states, well beyond what direct time-dependent simulations have been able to achieve so far.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.100602

Evolution of magnetocrystalline anisotropies in Mn1-xFexSi and Mn1-xCoxSi as inferred from small-angle neutron scattering and bulk properties

J. Kindervater, T. Adams, A. Bauer, F.X. Haslbeck, A. Chacon, S. Muehlbauer, F. Jonietz, A: Neubauer, U. Gasser, G. Nagy, N. Martin, W. Haeussler, R. Georgii, M. Garst, C. Pfleiderer

Physical Review B 101 (10), 104406 (2020).

Show Abstract

We report a comprehensive small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of magnetic correlations in Mn1-xFexSi at zero magnetic field. To delineate changes of magnetocrystalline anisotropies (MCAs) from effects due to defects and disorder, we recorded complementary susceptibility and high-resolution specific heat data and investigated selected compositions of Mn1-xCoxSi. For all systems studied, the helimagnetic transition temperature and magnetic phase diagrams evolve monotonically with composition consistent with literature. The SANS intensity patterns of the spontaneous magnetic order recorded under zero-field cooling, which were systematically tracked over forty angular positions, display strong changes of the directions of the intensity maxima and smeared out intensity distributions as a function of composition. We show that cubic MCAs account for the complex evolution of the SANS patterns, where for increasing x the character of the MCAs shifts from terms that are fourth order to terms that are sixth order in spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility and SANS establishes that the helix reorientation as a function of magnetic field for Fe- or Co-doped MnSi is dominated by pinning due to defects and disorder. The presence of well-defined thermodynamic anomalies of the specific heat at the phase boundaries of the skyrmion lattice phase in the doped samples and properties observed in Mn1-xCoxSi establishes that the pinning due to defects and disorder remains, however, weak and comparable to the field scale of the helix reorientation. The observation that MCAs, which are sixth order in spin-orbit coupling, play an important role for the spontaneous order in Mn1-xFexSi and Mn1-xCoxSi offers a fresh perspective for a wide range of topics in cubic chiral magnets such as the generic magnetic phase diagram, the morphology of topological spin textures, the paramagnetic-to-helical transition, and quantum phase transitions.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.104406

Wigner crystals in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides: Spin physics and readout

J. Knörzer, M. J. A. Schuetz, G. Giedke, D. S. Wild, K. De Greve, R. Schmidt, M. D. Lukin, and I.Cirac.

Physical Review B 101, 125101 (2020).

Show Abstract

Wigner crystals are prime candidates for the realization of regular electron lattices under minimal requirements on external control and electronics. However, several technical challenges have prevented their detailed experimental investigation and applications to date. We propose an implementation of two-dimensional electron lattices for quantum simulation of Ising spin systems based on self-assembled Wigner crystals in transition-metal dichalcogenides. We show that these semiconductors allow for minimally invasive all-optical detection schemes of charge ordering and total spin. For incident light with optimally chosen beam parameters and polarization, we predict a strong dependence of the transmitted and reflected signals on the underlying lattice periodicity, thus revealing the charge order inherent in Wigner crystals. At the same time, the selection rules in transition-metal dichalcogenides provide direct access to the spin degree of freedom via Faraday rotation measurements.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.125101

Wigner crystals in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides: Spin physics and readout

J. Knoerzer, M.J.A. Schuetz, G. Giedke, D.S. Wild, K. De Greve, R. Schmidt, M.D. Lukin, J.I. Cirac

Physical Review B 101 (12), 125101 (2020).

Show Abstract

Wigner crystals are prime candidates for the realization of regular electron lattices under minimal requirements on external control and electronics. However, several technical challenges have prevented their detailed experimental investigation and applications to date. We propose an implementation of two-dimensional electron lattices for quantum simulation of Ising spin systems based on self-assembled Wigner crystals in transition-metal dichalcogenides. We show that these semiconductors allow for minimally invasive all-optical detection schemes of charge ordering and total spin. For incident light with optimally chosen beam parameters and polarization, we predict a strong dependence of the transmitted and reflected signals on the underlying lattice periodicity, thus revealing the charge order inherent in Wigner crystals. At the same time, the selection rules in transition-metal dichalcogenides provide direct access to the spin degree of freedom via Faraday rotation measurements.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.125101

Multimode Fock states with large photon number: effective descriptions and applications in quantum metrology

M. Perarnau-Llobet, A. Gonzalez-Tudela, J.I. Cirac

Quantum Science and Technology 5 (2), 025003 (2020).

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We develop general tools to characterise and efficiently compute relevant observables of multimode N-photon states generated in nonlinear decays in one-dimensional waveguides. We then consider optical interferometry in a Mach-Zender interferometer where a d-mode photonic state enters in each arm of the interferometer. We derive a simple expression for the quantum Fisher information in terms of the average photon number in each mode, and show that it can be saturated by number-resolved photon measurements that do not distinguish between the different d modes.

DOI: 10.1088/2058-9565/ab6ce5

Highly Efficient, Linear-Scaling Seminumerical Exact-Exchange Method for Graphic Processing Units

H. Laqua, T.H. Thompson, J. Kussmann, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 16 (3), 1456-1468 (2020).

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We present a highly efficient and asymptotically linear-scaling graphic processing unit accelerated seminumerical exact-exchange method (snLinK). We go beyond our previous central processing unit-based method (Laqua, H.; Kussmann, J.; Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2018, 14, 3451-3458) by employing our recently developed integral bounds (Thompson, T. H.; Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 1.50, 044101) and high-accuracy numerical integration grid (Laqua, H.; Kussmann, J.; Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2018, 149, 204111). The accuracy is assessed for several established test sets, providing errors significantly below 1mE(h) for the smallest grid. Moreover, a comprehensive performance analysis for large molecules between 62 and 1347 atoms is provided, revealing the outstanding performance of our method, in particular, for large basis sets such as the polarized quadruple-zeta level with diffuse functions.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.9b00860

Ergodicity Breaking Arising from Hilbert Space Fragmentation in Dipole-Conserving Hamiltonians

P. Sala, T. Rakovszky, R. Verresen, M. Knap, F. Pollmann

Physical Review X 10 (1), 011047 (2020).

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We show that the combination of charge and dipole conservation-characteristic of fracton systems-leads to an extensive fragmentation of the Hilbert space, which, in turn, can lead to a breakdown of thermalization. As a concrete example, we investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional spin-1 models that conserve charge (total S-z) and its associated dipole moment. First, we consider a minimal model including only three-site terms and find that the infinite temperature autocorrelation saturates to a finite value-showcasing nonthermal behavior. The absence of thermalization is identified as a consequence of the strong fragmentation of the Hilbert space into exponentially many invariant subspaces in the local S-z basis, arising from the interplay of dipole conservation and local interactions. Second, we extend the model by including four-site terms and find that this perturbation leads to a weak fragmentation: The system still has exponentially many invariant subspaces, but they are no longer sufficient to avoid thermalization for typical initial states. More generally, for any finite range of interactions, the system still exhibits nonthermal eigenstates appearing throughout the entire spectrum. We compare our results to charge and dipole moment-conserving random unitary circuit models for which we reach identical conclusions.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.10.011047

On-site tuning of the carrier lifetime in silicon for on-chip THz circuits using a focused beam of helium ions

P. Zimmermann, A.W. Holleitner

Applied Physics Letters 116 (7), 073501 (2020).

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In this study, we demonstrate that a focused helium ion beam allows the local adjustment and optimization of the carrier lifetime in silicon-based photoswitches integrated in ultrafast on-chip terahertz-circuits. Starting with a carrier lifetime of 5.3 ps for as-grown silicon on sapphire, we monotonously reduce the carrier lifetime in integrated switches to a minimum of similar to 0.55 ps for a helium ion fluence of 20x10(15) ions/cm(2). By introducing an analytical model for the carrier lifetimes in the photoswitches, we particularly demonstrate that the carrier lifetime can be adjusted locally even within single photoswitches. In turn, the demonstrated on-site tuning allows optimizing ultrafast high-frequency circuits, into which radiation-sensitive nanoscale materials, such as two-dimensional materials, are embedded. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5143421

Secure Storage Capacity Under Rate Constraints—Continuity and Super Activation

S. Baur, H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor.

IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 15, 959-970 (2020).

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The source model for secret key generation with one way public communication refers to a setting in which a secret key should be agreed upon at two terminals. At both terminals correlated components of a common source are available. In addition, a message can be sent from one terminal to the other via a public channel. In this paper, a related scenario is considered where instead of secret key generation, the goal is to securely store data in a public database. The database allows for error-free storing of the data, but is constrained in its size which imposes a rate constraint on storing. The corresponding capacity for secure storage is known and it has been shown that the capacity-achieving strategy satisfies the strong secrecy criterion. Here, the case when the storage in the public database is subject to errors is considered and the corresponding capacity is characterized. In addition, the continuity properties of the two capacity functions are analyzed. These capacity functions are continuous as opposed to the discontinuous secret key capacity with rate constraint. It is shown that for secure storage the phenomenon of super activation can occur. Finally, it is discussed how the results in this paper differ from previous results on super activation.

DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2929945

Isometric tensor network representation of string-net liquids

T. Soejima, K. Siva, N. Bultinck, S. Chatterjee, F. Pollmann, M.P. Zaletel

Physical Review B 101 (8), 085117 (2020).

Show Abstract

Recently, a class of tensor networks called isometric tensor network states (isoTNS) was proposed which generalizes the canonical form of matrix product states to tensor networks in higher dimensions. While this ansatz allows for efficient numerical computations, it remained unclear which phases admit an isoTNS representation. In this work, we show that two-dimensional string-net liquids, which represent a wide variety of topological phases including discrete gauge theories, admit an exact isoTNS representation. We further show that the isometric form can be preserved after applying a finite-depth local quantum circuit. Taken together, these results show that long-range entanglement by itself is not an obstruction to isoTNS representation and suggest that all two-dimensional gapped phases with gappable edges admit an isoTNS representation.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.085117

Parametric Instabilities of Interacting Bosons in Periodically Driven 1D Optical Lattices

K. Wintersperger, M. Bukov, J. Näger, S. Lellouch, E. Demler, U. Schneider, I. Bloch, N. Goldman, and M. Aidelsburger

Physical Review X 10, 011030 (2020).

Show Abstract

Periodically driven quantum systems are currently explored in view of realizing novel many-body phases of matter. This approach is particularly promising in gases of ultracold atoms, where sophisticated shaking protocols can be realized and interparticle interactions are well controlled. The combination of interactions and time-periodic driving, however, often leads to uncontrollable heating and instabilities, potentially preventing practical applications of Floquet engineering in large many-body quantum systems. In this work, we experimentally identify the existence of parametric instabilities in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in strongly driven optical lattices through momentum-resolved measurements, in line with theoretical predictions. Parametric instabilities can trigger the destruction of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates through the rapid growth of collective excitations, in particular in systems with weak harmonic confinement transverse to the lattice axis. Understanding the onset of parametric instabilities in driven quantum matter is crucial for determining optimal conditions for the engineering of modulation-induced many-body systems.

10.1103/PhysRevX.10.011030

Confined phases of one-dimensional spinless fermions coupled to Z2 gauge theory

U. Borla, R. Verresen, F. Grusdt, S. Moroz.

Physics Review Letters 124, 120503 (2020).

Show Abstract

We investigate a quantum many-body lattice system of one-dimensional spinless fermions interacting with a dynamical Z2 gauge field. The gauge field mediates long-range attraction between fermions resulting in their confinement into bosonic dimers. At strong coupling we develop an exactly solvable effective theory of such dimers with emergent constraints. Even at generic coupling and fermion density, the model can be rewritten as a local spin chain. Using the Density Matrix Renormalization Group the system is shown to form a Luttinger liquid, indicating the emergence of fermionic fractionalized excitations despite the confinement of lattice fermions. In a finite chain we observe the doubling of the period of Friedel oscillations which paves the way towards experimental detection of confinement in this system. We discuss the possibility of a Mott phase at the commensurate filling 2/3.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.120503

Secure Communication and Identification Systems — Effective Performance Evaluation on Turing Machines

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor.

IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 15, 1013 - 1025 (2020).

Show Abstract

Modern communication systems need to satisfy pre-specified requirements on spectral efficiency and security. Physical layer security is a concept that unifies both and connects them with entropic quantities. In this paper, a framework based on Turing machines is developed to address the question of deciding whether or not a communication system meets these requirements. It is known that the class of Turing solvable problems coincides with the class of algorithmically solvable problems so that this framework provides the theoretical basis for effective verification of such performance requirements. A key issue here is to decide whether or not the performance functions, i.e., capacities, of relevant communication scenarios, particularly those with secrecy requirements and active adversaries, are Turing computable. This is a necessary condition for the corresponding communication protocols to be effectively verifiable. Within this framework, it is then shown that for certain scenarios including the wiretap channel the corresponding capacities are Turing computable. Next, a general necessary condition on the performance function for Turing computability is established. With this, it is shown that for certain scenarios, including the wiretap channel with an active jammer, the performance functions are not computable when deterministic codes are used. As a consequence, such performance functions are also not computable on all other computer architectures such as the von Neumann-architecture or the register machines.

DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2932226

Review on novel methods for lattice gauge theories

M.C. Banuls, K. Cichy

Reports on Progress in Physics 83 (2), 024401 (2020).

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Formulating gauge theories on a lattice offers a genuinely non-perturbative way of studying quantum field theories, and has led to impressive achievements. In particular, it significantly deepened our understanding of quantum chromodynamics. Yet, some very relevant problems remain inherently challenging, such as real time evolution, or the presence of a chemical potential, cases in which Monte Carlo simulations are hindered by a sign problem. In the last few years, a number of possible alternatives have been put forward, based on quantum information ideas, which could potentially open the access to areas of research that have so far eluded more standard methods. They include tensor network calculations, quantum simulations with different physical platforms and quantum computations, and constitute nowadays a vibrant research area. Experts from different fields, including experimental and theoretical high energy physics, condensed matter, and quantum information, are turning their attention to these interdisciplinary possibilities, and driving the progress of the field. The aim of this article is to review the status and perspectives of these new avenues for the exploration of lattice gauge theories.

DOI: 10.1088/1361-6633/ab6311

Evaluation of time-dependent correlators after a local quench in iPEPS: hole motion in the t - J model

C. Hubig, A: Bohrdt, M. Knap, F. Grusdt, J.I. Cirac

Scipost Physics 8 (2), 021 (2020).

Show Abstract

Infinite projected entangled pair states (iPEPS) provide a convenient variational description of infinite, translationally-invariant two-dimensional quantum states. However, the simulation of local excitations is not directly possible due to the translationally-invariant ansatz. Furthermore, as iPEPS are either identical or orthogonal, expectation values between different states as required during the evaluation of non-equal-time correlators are ill-defined. Here, we show that by introducing auxiliary states on each site, it becomes possible to simulate both local excitations and evaluate non-equal-time correlators in an iPEPS setting under real-time evolution. We showcase the method by simulating the t - J model after a single hole has been placed in the half-filled antiferromagnetic background and evaluating both return probabilities and spin correlation functions, as accessible in quantum gas microscopes.

DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.8.2.021

Nonlocal emergent hydrodynamics in a long-range quantum spin system

A. Schuckert, I. Lovas, M. Knap

Physical Review B 101 (2), 020416 (2020).

Show Abstract

Generic short-range interacting quantum systems with a conserved quantity exhibit universal diffusive transport at late times. We employ nonequilibrium quantum field theory and semiclassical phase-space simulations to show how this universality is replaced by a more general transport process in a long-range XY spin chain at infinite temperature with couplings decaying algebraically with distance as r(-alpha). While diffusion is recovered for alpha > 1.5, longer-ranged couplings with 0.5 < alpha <= 1.5 give rise to effective classical Levy flights, a random walk with step sizes drawn from a distribution with algebraic tails. We find that the space-time-dependent spin density profiles are self-similar, with scaling functions given by the stable symmetric distributions. As a consequence, for 0.5 < alpha <= 1.5, autocorrelations show hydrodynamic tails decaying in time as t(-1/(2 alpha-1)) and linear-response theory breaks down. Our findings can be readily verified with current trapped ion experiments.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.020416

Dark-time decay of the retrieval efficiency of light stored as a Rydberg excitation in a noninteracting ultracold gas

S. Schmidt-Eberle, T. Stolz, G. Rempe, and S.Dürr.

Physical Review A 101, 013421 (2020).

Show Abstract

We study the dark-time decay of the retrieval efficiency for light stored in a Rydberg state in an ultracold gas of 87Rb atoms based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Using low atomic density to avoid dephasing caused by atom-atom interactions, we measure a 1/e time of 30µs for the 80S state in free expansion. One of the dominant limitations is the combination of photon recoil and thermal atomic motion at 0.2µK. If the 1064-nm dipole trap is left on, then the 1/e time is reduced to 13 µs, in agreement with a model taking differential light shifts and gravitational sag into account. To characterize how coherent the retrieved light is, we overlap it with reference light and measure the visibility V of the resulting interference pattern, obtaining V>90% for short dark time. Our experimental work is accompanied by a detailed model for the dark-time decay of the retrieval efficiency of light stored in atomic ensembles. The model is generally applicable for photon storage in Dicke states, such as in EIT with $\lamda$-type or ladder-type level schemes and in Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller single-photon sources. The model includes a treatment of the dephasing caused by thermal atomic motion combined with net photon recoil, as well as the influence of trapping potentials. It takes into account that the signal light field is typically not a plane wave. The model maps the retrieval efficiency to single-atom properties and shows that the retrieval efficiency is related to the decay of fringe visibility in Ramsey spectroscopy and to the spatial first-order coherence function of the gas.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.101.013421

Large Spin Hall Magnetoresistance in Antiferromagnetic alpha-Fe2O3/Pt Heterostructures

J. Fischer, M. Althammer, N. Vlietstra, H. Huebl, S.T.B. Goennenwein, R. Gross, S. Gepraegs, M. Opel

Physical Review Applied 13 (1), 014019 (2020).

Show Abstract

We investigate the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) at room temperature in thin-film heterostructures of antiferromagnetic insulating (0001)-oriented alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) and Pt. We measure their longitudinal and transverse resistivities while rotating an applied magnetic field of up to 17 T in three orthogonal planes. For out-of-plane magnetotransport measurements, we find indications for a multidomain antiferromagnetic configuration whenever the field is aligned along the film normal. For in-plane field rotations, we clearly observe a sinusoidal resistivity oscillation characteristic for the SMR due to a coherent rotation of the Neel vector. The maximum SMR amplitude of 0.25% is, surprisingly, twice as high as for prototypical ferrimagnetic Y3Fe5O12/Pt heterostructures. The SMR effect saturates at much smaller magnetic fields than in comparable antiferromagnets, making the alpha-Fe2O3/Pt system particularly interesting for roomtemperature antiferromagnetic spintronic applications.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.014019

Time-resolved observation of spin-charge deconfinement in fermionic Hubbard chains

J. Vijayan, P. Sompet, G. Salomon, J. Koepsell, S. Hirthe, A. Bohrdt, F. Grusdt, I. Bloch, and C. Gross

Science 10, 186-189 (2020).

Show Abstract

Elementary particles carry several quantum numbers, such as charge and spin. However, in an ensemble of strongly interacting particles, the emerging degrees of freedom can fundamentally differ from those of the individual constituents. For example, one-dimensional systems are described by independent quasiparticles carrying either spin (spinon) or charge (holon). Here, we report on the dynamical deconfinement of spin and charge excitations in real space after the removal of a particle in Fermi-Hubbard chains of ultracold atoms. Using space- and time-resolved quantum gas microscopy, we tracked the evolution of the excitations through their signatures in spin and charge correlations. By evaluating multipoint correlators, we quantified the spatial separation of the excitations in the context of fractionalization into single spinons and holons at finite temperatures.

10.1126/science.aay2354

Long-Distance Distribution of Atom-Photon Entanglement at Telecom Wavelength

T. van Leent, M. Bock, R. Garthoff, K. Redeker, W. Zhang, T. Bauer, W. Rosenfeld, C. Becher, and H. Weinfurter.

Physical Review Letters 124, 010510 (2020).

Show Abstract

Entanglement between stationary quantum memories and photonic channels is the essential resource for future quantum networks. Together with entanglement distillation, it will enable efficient distribution of quantum states. We report on the generation and observation of entanglement between a 87Rb atom and a photon at telecom wavelength transmitted through up to 20 km of optical fiber. For this purpose, we use polarization-preserving quantum frequency conversion to transform the wavelength of a photon entangled with the atomic spin state from 780 nm to the telecom S band at 1522 nm. We achieve an unprecedented external device conversion efficiency of 57% and observe an entanglement fidelity between the atom and telecom photon of ?78.5±0.9% after transmission through 20 km of optical fiber, mainly limited by decoherence of the atomic state. This result is an important milestone on the road to distribute quantum information on a large scale.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.010510

Imaginary-time matrix product state impurity solver in a real material calculation: Spin-orbit coupling in Sr2RuO4

N.O. Linden, M. Zingl, C. Hubig, O. Parcollet, U. Schollwoeck

Physical Review B 101 (4), 041101 (2020).

Show Abstract

Using an imaginary-time matrix-product state (MPS) based quantum impurity solver we perform a realistic dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) calculation combined with density functional theory (DFT) for Sr2RuO4. We take the full Hubbard-Kanamori interactions and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) into account. The MPS impurity solver works at essentially zero temperature in the presence of SOC, a regime of parameters currently inaccessible to continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo methods, due to a severe sign problem. We show that earlier results obtained at high temperature, namely, that the diagonal self-energies are nearly unaffected by SOC and that interactions lead to an effective enhancement of the SOC, hold even at low temperature. We observe that realism makes the numerical solution of the impurity model with MPS much more demanding in comparison to earlier works on Bethe lattice models, requiring several algorithmic improvements.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.041101

Turing Computability of Fourier Transforms of Bandlimited and Discrete Signals

H. Boche, U.J. Mönich.

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 68, 532-547 (2020).

Show Abstract

The Fourier transform is an important operation in signal processing. However, its exact computation on digital computers can be problematic. In this paper we consider the computability of the Fourier transform and the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT). We construct a computable bandlimited absolutely integrable signal that has a continuous Fourier transform, which is, however, not Turing computable. Further, we also construct a computable sequence such that the DTFT is not Turing computable. Turing computability models what is theoretically implementable on a digital computer. Hence, our result shows that the Fourier transform of certain signals cannot be computed on digital hardware of any kind, including CPUs, FPGAs, and DSPs. This also implies that there is no symmetry between the time and frequency domain with respect to computability. Therefore, numerical approaches which employ the frequency domain representation of a signal (like calculating the convolution by performing a multiplication in the frequency domain) can be problematic. Interestingly, an idealized analog machine can compute the Fourier transform. However, it is unclear whether and how this theoretical superiority of the analog machine can be translated into practice. Further, we show that it is not possible to find an algorithm that can always decide for a given signal whether the Fourier transform is computable or not.

DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2020.2964204

Secure Communication and Identification Systems - Effective Performance Evaluation on Turing Machines

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor

IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 15, 1013-1025 (2020).

Show Abstract

Modern communication systems need to satisfy pre-specified requirements on spectral efficiency and security. Physical layer security is a concept that unifies both and connects them with entropic quantities. In this paper, a framework based on Turing machines is developed to address the question of deciding whether or not a communication system meets these requirements. It is known that the class of Turing solvable problems coincides with the class of algorithmically solvable problems so that this framework provides the theoretical basis for effective verification of such performance requirements. A key issue here is to decide whether or not the performance functions, i.e., capacities, of relevant communication scenarios, particularly those with secrecy requirements and active adversaries, are Turing computable. This is a necessary condition for the corresponding communication protocols to be effectively verifiable. Within this framework, it is then shown that for certain scenarios including the wiretap channel the corresponding capacities are Turing computable. Next, a general necessary condition on the performance function for Turing computability is established. With this, it is shown that for certain scenarios, including the wiretap channel with an active jammer, the performance functions are not computable when deterministic codes are used. As a consequence, such performance functions are also not computable on all other computer architectures such as the von Neumann-architecture or the register machines.

DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2932226

On approximations for functions in the space of uniformly convergent Fourier series

H. Boche, V. Pohl

Journal of Approximation Theory 249, 105307 (2020).

Show Abstract

This paper studies the possibility of approximating functions in the space of all uniformly convergent symmetric and non-symmetric Fourier series from finitely many samples of the given function. It is shown that no matter what approximation method is chosen, there always exists a residual subset such that the approximation method diverges for all functions from this subset. This general result implies that there exists no method to effectively calculate the Fourier series expansion on a digital computer for all functions from the space of uniformly convergent Fourier series. In particular, there exists no Turing computable approximation method in these spaces. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jat.2019.105307

Turing Computability of Fourier Transforms of Bandlimited and Discrete Signals

H. Boche, U.J. Moenich

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 68, 532-547 (2020).

Show Abstract

The Fourier transform is an important operation in signal processing. However, its exact computation on digital computers can be problematic. In this paper we consider the computability of the Fourier transform and the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT). We construct a computable bandlimited absolutely integrable signal that has a continuous Fourier transform, which is, however, not Turing computable. Further, we also construct a computable sequence such that the DTFT is not Turing computable. Turing computability models what is theoretically implementable on a digital computer. Hence, our result shows that the Fourier transform of certain signals cannot be computed on digital hardware of any kind, including CPUs, FPGAs, and DSPs. This also implies that there is no symmetry between the time and frequency domain with respect to computability. Therefore, numerical approaches which employ the frequency domain representation of a signal (like calculating the convolution by performing a multiplication in the frequency domain) can be problematic. Interestingly, an idealized analog machine can compute the Fourier transform. However, it is unclear whether and how this theoretical superiority of the analog machine can be translated into practice. Further, we show that it is not possible to find an algorithm that can always decide for a given signal whether the Fourier transform is computable or not.

DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2020.2964204

From Probabilistic Graphical Models to Generalized Tensor Networks for Supervised Learning

I. Glasser, N. Pancotti, J.I. Cirac

IEEE ACCESS 8, 68169-68182 (2020).

Show Abstract

Tensor networks have found a wide use in a variety of applications in physics and computer science, recently leading to both theoretical insights as well as practical algorithms in machine learning. In this work we explore the connection between tensor networks and probabilistic graphical models, and show that it motivates the definition of generalized tensor networks where information from a tensor can be copied and reused in other parts of the network. We discuss the relationship between generalized tensor network architectures used in quantum physics, such as string-bond states, and architectures commonly used in machine learning. We provide an algorithm to train these networks in a supervised-learning context and show that they overcome the limitations of regular tensor networks in higher dimensions, while keeping the computation efficient. A method to combine neural networks and tensor networks as part of a common deep learning architecture is also introduced. We benchmark our algorithm for several generalized tensor network architectures on the task of classifying images and sounds, and show that they outperform previously introduced tensor-network algorithms. The models we consider also have a natural implementation on a quantum computer and may guide the development of near-term quantum machine learning architectures.

DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2986279

Denial-of-Service Attacks on Communication Systems: Detectability and Jammer Knowledge

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 68, 3754-3768 (2020).

Show Abstract

Wireless communication systems are inherently vulnerable to intentional jamming. In this paper, two classes of such jammers are considered: those with partial and full knowledge. While the first class accounts for those jammers that know the encoding and decoding function, the latter accounts for those that are further aware of the actual transmitted message. Of particular interest are so-called denial-of-service (DoS) attacks in which the jammer is able to completely disrupt any transmission. Accordingly, it is of crucial interest for the legitimate users to detect such adversarial DoS attacks. This paper develops a detection framework based on Turing machines. Turing machines have no limitations on computational complexity and computing capacity and storage and can simulate any given algorithm. For both scenarios of a jammer with partial and full knowledge, it is shown that there exists no Turing machine which can decide whether or not a DoS attack is possible for a given channel and the corresponding decision problem is undecidable. On the other hand, it is shown for both scenarios that it is possible to algorithmically characterize those channels for which a DoS attack is not possible. This means that it is possible to detect those scenarios in which the jammer is not able to disrupt the communication. For all other channels, the Turing machine does not stop and runs forever making this decision problem semidecidable. Finally, it is shown that additional coordination resources such as common randomness make the communication robust against such attacks.

DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2020.2993165

Communication Under Channel Uncertainty: An Algorithmic Perspective and Effective Construction

H. Boche, R.F. Schaefer, H.V. Poor

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 68, 6224-6239 (2020).

Show Abstract

The availability and quality of channel state information heavily influences the performance of wireless communication systems. For perfect channel knowledge, optimal signal processing and coding schemes have been well studied and often closed-form solutions are known. On the other hand, the case of imperfect channel information is less understood and closed-form characterizations of optimal schemes remain unknown in many cases. This paper approaches this question from a fundamental, algorithmic point of view by studying whether or not such optimal schemes can be constructed algorithmically in principle (without putting any constraints on the computational complexity of such algorithms). To this end, the concepts of compound channels and averaged channels are considered as models for channel uncertainty and block fading and it is shown that, although the compound channel and averaged channel themselves are computable channels, the corresponding capacities are not computable in general, i.e., there exists no algorithm (or Turing machine) that takes the channel as an input and computes the corresponding capacity. As an implication of this, it is then shown that for such compound channels, there are no effectively constructible optimal (i.e., capacity-achieving) signal processing and coding schemes possible. This is particularly noteworthy as such schemes must exist (since the capacity is known), but they cannot be effectively, i.e., algorithmically, constructed. Thus, there is a crucial difference between the existence of optimal schemes and their algorithmic constructability. In addition, it is shown that there is no search algorithm that can find the maximal number of messages that can be reliably transmitted for a fixed blocklength. Finally, the case of partial channel knowledge is studied in which either the transmitter or the receiver have perfect channel knowledge while the other part remains uncertain. It is shown that also in the cases of an informed encoder and informed decoder, the capacity remains non-computable in general and, accordingly, optimal signal processing and coding schemes are not effectively constructible.

DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2020.3027902

Random characteristics for Wigner matrices

Soosten, S. Warzel

Electronic Communications in Probability 24, 75 (2019).

Show Abstract

We extend the random characteristics approach to Wigner matrices whose entries are not required to have a normal distribution. As an application, we give a simple and fully dynamical proof of the weak local semicircle law in the bulk.

DOI: 10.1214/19-ECP278

Cluster Expansions with Renormalized Activities and Applications to Colloids

S. Jansen, D. Tsagkarogiannis

Annales Henri Poincare 21 (1), 45-79 (2020).

Show Abstract

We consider a binary system of small and large objects in the continuous space interacting via a nonnegative potential. By integrating over the small objects, the effective interaction between the large ones becomes multi-body. We prove convergence of the cluster expansion for the grand canonical ensemble of the effective system of large objects. To perform the combinatorial estimate of hypergraphs (due to the multi-body origin of the interaction), we exploit the underlying structure of the original binary system. Moreover, we obtain a sufficient condition for convergence which involves the surface of the large objects rather than their volume. This amounts to a significant improvement in comparison to a direct application of the known cluster expansion theorems. Our result is valid for the particular case of hard spheres (colloids) for which we rigorously treat the depletion interaction.

DOI: 10.1007/s00023-019-00868-2

Impact of substrate induced band tail states on the electronic and optical properties of MoS2

J. Klein, A. Kerelsky, M. Lorke, M. Florian, F. Sigger, J. Kiemle, M. C. Reuter, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Finley, A. N. Pasupathy, A. Holleitner, F. M. Ross, U. Wurstbauer

Applied Physics Letters 115 (26), 261603 (2019).

Show Abstract

Substrate, environment, and lattice imperfections have a strong impact on the local electronic structure and the optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides. We find by a comparative study of MoS2 on SiO2 and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements that the apparent bandgap of MoS2 on SiO2 is significantly reduced compared to MoS2 on hBN. The bandgap energies as well as the exciton binding energies determined from all-optical measurements are very similar for MoS2 on SiO2 and hBN. This discrepancy is found to be caused by a substantial amount of band tail states near the conduction band edge of MoS2 supported by SiO2. The presence of those states impacts the local density of states in STS measurements and can be linked to a broad red-shifted photoluminescence peak and a higher charge carrier density that are all strongly diminished or even absent using high quality hBN substrates. By taking into account the substrate effects, we obtain a quasiparticle gap that is in excellent agreement with optical absorbance spectra and we deduce an exciton binding energy of about 0.53 eV on SiO2 and 0.44 eV on hBN.

Dynamics of strongly interacting systems: From Fock-space fragmentation to many-body localization

G. De Tomasi,D. Hetterich, P. Sala,F. Pollman

Physical Review B 100 (21), 214313 (2019).

Show Abstract

We study the t-V disordered spinless fermionic chain in the strong-coupling regime, t/V -> 0. Strong interactions highly hinder the dynamics of the model, fragmenting its Hilbert space into exponentially many blocks in system size. Macroscopically, these blocks can be characterized by the number of new degrees of freedom, which we refer to as movers. We focus on two limiting cases: blocks with only one mover and ones with a finite density of movers. The former many-particle block can be exactly mapped to a single-particle Anderson model with correlated disorder in one dimension. As a result, these eigenstates are always localized for any finite amount of disorder. The blocks with a finite density of movers, on the other side, show a many-body localized (MBL) transition that is tuned by the disorder strength. Moreover, we provide numerical evidence that its ergodic phase is diffusive at weak disorder. Approaching the MBL transition, we observe subdiffusive dynamics at finite timescales and find indications that this might be only a transient behavior before crossing over to diffusion.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.214313

Time-dependent density matrix renormalization group quantum dynamics for realistic chemical systems

Xiaoyu Xie, Yuyang Liu, Yao Yao, Ulrich Schollwöck, Chungen Liu, Haibo Ma

Journal of Chemical Physics 151 (22), 224101 (2019).

Show Abstract

Electronic and/or vibronic coherence has been found by recent ultrafast spectroscopy experiments in many chemical, biological, and material systems. This indicates that there are strong and complicated interactions between electronic states and vibration modes in realistic chemical systems. Therefore, simulations of quantum dynamics with a large number of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom are highly desirable. Due to the efficient compression and localized representation of quantum states in the matrix-product state (MPS) formulation, time-evolution methods based on the MPS framework, which we summarily refer to as tDMRG (time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group) methods, are considered to be promising candidates to study the quantum dynamics of realistic chemical systems. In this work, we benchmark the performances of four different tDMRG methods, including global Taylor, global Krylov, and local one-site and two-site time-dependent variational principles (1TDVP and 2TDVP), with a comparison to multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree and experimental results. Two typical chemical systems of internal conversion and singlet fission are investigated: one containing strong and high-order local and nonlocal electron-vibration couplings and the other exhibiting a continuous phonon bath. The comparison shows that the tDMRG methods (particularly, the 2TDVP method) can describe the full quantum dynamics in large chemical systems accurately and efficiently. Several key parameters in the tDMRG calculation including the truncation error threshold, time interval, and ordering of local sites were also investigated to strike the balance between efficiency and accuracy of results.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5125945

Expressive power of tensor-network factorizations for probabilistic modeling

I. Glasser, R. Sweke, N. Pancotti, J. Eisert, J.I. Cirac

Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2019) 32, (2019).

Show Abstract

Tensor-network techniques have recently proven useful in machine learning, both as a tool for the formulation of new learning algorithms and for enhancing the mathematical understanding of existing methods. Inspired by these developments, and the natural correspondence between tensor networks and probabilistic graphical models, we provide a rigorous analysis of the expressive power of various tensor-network factorizations of discrete multivariate probability distributions. These factorizations include non-negative tensor-trains/MPS, which are in correspondence with hidden Markov models, and Born machines, which are naturally related to the probabilistic interpretation of quantum circuits. When used to model probability distributions, they exhibit tractable likelihoods and admit efficient learning algorithms. Interestingly, we prove that there exist probability distributions for which there are unbounded separations between the resource requirements of some of these tensor-network factorizations. Of particular interest, using complex instead of real tensors can lead to an arbitrarily large reduction in the number of parameters of the network. Additionally, we introduce locally purified states (LPS), a new factorization inspired by techniques for the simulation of quantum systems, with provably better expressive power than all other representations considered. The ramifications of this result are explored through numerical experiments.

The Divergence of all Sampling-based Methods for Calculating the Spectral Factorization

H. Boche, V. Pohl

2019 IEEE 58TH Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 7714-7720 (2019).

Show Abstract

This paper investigates the possibility of approximating the spectral factor of continuous spectral densities with finite Dirichlet energy based on finitely many samples of the spectral densities. It will be shown that there exists no sampling-based method which depends continuously on the samples and which is able to approximate the spectral factor arbitrarily well for all continuous densities of finite energy. Instead, to any sampling-based approximation method there exists a large set of spectral densities so that the approximation method does not converge to the spectral factor for every spectral density in this set as the number of available sampling points is increased. Finally, the paper discusses shortly some consequences of these results. Namely, it mentions implications on the inner-outer factorization, it discusses algorithms which are based on a rational approximation of the spectral density, and it considers the Turing computability of the spectral factor.

Solvable lattice models for metals with Z2 topological order

B. Verheijden, Y. Zhao, M. Punk

Scipost Physics 7 (6), 074 (2019).

Show Abstract

We present quantum dimer models in two dimensions which realize metallic ground states with Z2 topological order. Our models are generalizations of a dimer model introduced in [PNAS 112, 9552-9557 (2015)] to provide an effective description of unconventional metallic states in hole-doped Mott insulators. We construct exact ground state wave functions in a specific parameter regime and show that the ground state realizes a fractionalized Fermi liquid. Due to the presence of Z2 topological order the Luttinger count is modified and the volume enclosed by the Fermi surface is proportional to the density of doped holes away from half filling. We also comment on possible applications to magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene.

doi: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.7.6.074

Tone Reservation for OFDM With Restricted Carrier Set

H. Boche, U. Mönich

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Information Theory 65 (12), 7935-7949 (2019).

Show Abstract

The tone reservation method can be used to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems. In this paper, the tone reservation method is analyzed for OFDM with a restricted carrier set, where only the positive carrier frequencies are used. Performing a fully analytical analysis, we give a complete characterization of the information sets for which the PAPR problem is solvable. To derive our main result, we connect the PAPR problem with a geometric functional analytic property of certain spaces. Furthermore, we present applications of our theory that give guidelines for choosing the information carriers in the finite setting and discuss a probabilistic approach for selecting the carriers. In addition, it is shown that if there exists an information sequence for which the PAPR problem is not solvable, then the set of information sequences for which the PAPR problem is not solvable is a residual set.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2019.2932391

Electronic Properties of alpha-RuCl3 in Proximity to Graphene

S. Biswas, Y. Li, S. Winter, J. Knolle, R. Valentí

Physical Review Letters 123 (23), 237201 (2019).

Show Abstract

In the pursuit of developing routes to enhance magnetic Kitaev interactions in alpha-RuCl3, as well as probing doping effects, we investigate the electronic properties of alpha-RuCl3 in proximity to graphene. We study alpha-RuCl3/graphene heterostructures via ab initio density functional theory calculations, Wannier projection, and nonperturbative exact diagonalization methods. We show that alpha-RuCl3 becomes strained when placed on graphene and charge transfer occurs between the two layers, making alpha-RuCl3 (graphene) lightly electron doped (hole doped). This gives rise to an insulator-to-metal transition in alpha-RuCl3 with the Fermi energy located close to the bottom of the upper Hubbard band of the t(2g) manifold. These results suggest the possibility of realizing metallic and even exotic superconducting states. Moreover, we show that in the strained alpha-RuCl3 monolayer the Kitaev interactions are enhanced by more than 50% compared to the unstrained bulk structure. Finally, we discuss scenarios related to transport experiments in alpha-RuCl3/graphene heterostructures.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.237201

Time-evolution methods for matrix-product states

S. Packel, T. Kohler, A. Swoboda, S. Manmana, U. Schollwock, C. Hubig.

Annals of Physics 411, 167998 (2019).

Show Abstract

Matrix-product states have become the de facto standard for the representation of one-dimensional quantum many body states. During the last few years, numerous new methods have been introduced to evaluate the time evolution of a matrix-product state. Here, we will review and summarize the recent work on this topic as applied to finite quantum systems. We will explain and compare the different methods available to construct a time-evolved matrix-product state, namely the time-evolving block decimation, the MPO W-I,W-II method, the global Krylov method, the local Krylov method and the one- and two-site time-dependent variational principle. We will also apply these methods to four different representative examples of current problem settings in condensed matter physics.

DOI: 10.1016/j.aop.2019.167998

Unitary dilations of discrete-time quantum-dynamical semigroups

F. vom Ende, G. Dirr

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60 (12), 122702 (2019).

Show Abstract

We show that the discrete-time evolution of an open quantum system generated by a single quantum channel T can be embedded in the discrete-time evolution of an enlarged closed quantum system, i.e., we construct a unitary dilation of the discrete-time quantum-dynamical semigroup

(

T

n

)

n?

?

0

(Tn)n?N0

. In the case of a cyclic channel T, the auxiliary space may be chosen (partially) finite-dimensional. We further investigate discrete-time quantum control systems generated by finitely many commuting quantum channels and prove a similar unitary dilation result as in the case of a single channel.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5095868

Phase structure of the (1+1)-dimensional massive Thirring model from matrix product states

M.C. Bañuls, K. Cichy, Y. Kao, D.Lin, Y. Lin, D. Tan

Show Abstract

Employing matrix product states as an ansatz, we study the nonthermal phase structure of the (1 + 1)-dimensional massive Thirring model in the sector of a vanishing total fermion number with staggered regularization. In this paper, details of the implementation for this project are described. To depict the phase diagram of the model, we examine the entanglement entropy, the fermion bilinear condensate, and two types of correlation functions. Our investigation shows the existence of two phases, with one of them being critical and the other gapped. An interesting feature of the phase structure is that the theory with the nonzero fermion mass can be conformal. We also find clear numerical evidence that these phases are separated by a transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type. Results presented in this paper establish the possibility of using the matrix product states for probing this type of phase transition in quantum field theories. They can provide information for further exploration of scaling behavior, and they serve as an important ingredient for controlling the continuum extrapolation of the model.

A Schwarz inequality for complex basis function methods in non-Hermitian quantum chemistry

T.H. Thompson, C. Ochsenfeld, T.C. Jagau

Journal of Chemical Physics 151 (18), 184104 (2019).

Show Abstract

A generalization of the Schwarz bound employed to reduce the scaling of quantum-chemical calculations is introduced in the context of non-Hermitian methods employing complex-scaled basis functions. Non-Hermitian methods offer a treatment of molecular metastable states in terms of L-2-integrable wave functions with complex energies, but until now, an efficient upper bound for the resulting electron-repulsion integrals has been unavailable due to the complications from non-Hermiticity. Our newly formulated bound allows us to inexpensively and rigorously estimate the sparsity in the complex-scaled two-electron integral tensor, providing the basis for efficient integral screening procedures. We have incorporated a screening algorithm based on the new Schwarz bound into the state-of-the-art complex basis function integral code by White, Head-Gordon, and McCurdy [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 054103 (2015)]. The effectiveness of the screening is demonstrated through non-Hermitian Hartree-Fock calculations of the static field ionization of the 2-pyridoxine 2-aminopyridine molecular complex. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5123541

Using Matrix Product States to Study the Dynamical Large Deviations of Kinetically Constrained Models

M.C. Banuls, J.P. Garrahan

Physical Review Letters 123 (20), 200601 (2019).

Show Abstract

Here we demonstrate that tensor network techniques-originally devised for the analysis of quantum many-body problems-are well suited for the detailed study of rare event statistics in kinetically constrained models (KCMs). As concrete examples, we consider the Fredrickson-Andersen and East models, two paradigmatic KCMs relevant to the modeling of glasses. We show how variational matrix product states allow us to numerically approximate-systematically and with high accuracy-the leading eigenstates of the tilted dynamical generators, which encode the large deviation statistics of the dynamics. Via this approach, we can study system sizes beyond what is possible with other methods, allowing us to characterize in detail the finite size scaling of the trajectory-space phase transition of these models, the behavior of spectral gaps, and the spatial structure and "entanglement" properties of dynamical phases. We discuss the broader implications of our results.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.200601

Identification of emergent constraints and hidden order in frustrated magnets using tensorial kernel methods of machine learning

J. Greitemann, K. Liu, L.D.C. Jaubert, H. Yan, N. Shannon, L. Pollet

Physical Review B 100 (17), 174408 (2019).

Show Abstract

Machine-learning techniques have proved successful in identifying ordered phases of matter. However, it remains an open question how far they can contribute to the understanding of phases without broken symmetry, such as spin liquids. Here we demonstrate how a machine-learning approach can automatically learn the intricate phase diagram of a classical frustrated spin model. The method we employ is a support vector machine equipped with a tensorial kernel and a spectral graph analysis which admits its applicability in an effectively unsupervised context. Thanks to the interpretability of the machine we are able to infer, in closed form, both order parameter tensors of phases with broken symmetry, and the local constraints which signal an emergent gauge structure, and so characterize classical spin liquids. The method is applied to the classical XXZ model on the pyrochlore lattice where it distinguishes, among others, between a hidden biaxial spin-nematic phase and several different classical spin liquids. The results are in full agreement with a previous analysis by Taillefumier et al. [Phys. Rev. X 7, 041057 (2017)], but go further by providing a systematic hierarchy between disordered regimes, and establishing the physical relevance of the susceptibilities associated with the local constraints. Our work paves the way for the search of new orders and spin liquids in generic frustrated magnets.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.174408

Efficient variational approach to dynamics of a spatially extended bosonic Kondo model

Y. Ashida, T. Shi, R. Schmidt, H.R. Sadeghpour, J.I. Cirac, E. Demler

Physical Review A 100 (4), 043618 (2019).

Show Abstract

We develop an efficient variational approach to studying dynamics of a localized quantum spin coupled to a bath of mobile spinful bosons. We use parity symmetry to decouple the impurity spin from the environment via a canonical transformation and reduce the problem to a model of the interacting bosonic bath. We describe coherent time evolution of the latter using bosonic Gaussian states as a variational ansatz. We provide full analytical expressions for equations describing variational time evolution that can be applied to study in- and out-of-equilibrium phenomena in a wide class of quantum impurity problems. In the accompanying paper [Ashida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 183001 (2019)], we present a concrete application of this general formalism to the analysis of the Rydberg central spin model, in which the spin-1/2 Rydberg impurity undergoes spin-changing collisions in a dense cloud of two-component ultracold bosons. To illustrate new features arising from orbital motion of the bath atoms, we compare our results to the Monte Carlo study of the model with spatially localized bosons in the bath, in which random positions of the atoms give rise to random couplings of the standard central spin model.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.100.043618

Quantum Rydberg Central Spin Model

Y. Ashida, T. Shi, R. Schmidt, H.R. Sadeghpour, J.I. Cirac, E. Demler

Physical Review Letters 123 (8), 183001 (2019).

Show Abstract

We consider dynamics of a Rydberg impurity in a cloud of ultracold bosonic atoms in which the Rydberg electron undergoes spin-changing collisions with surrounding atoms. This system realizes a new type of quantum impurity problems that compounds essential features of the Kondo model, the Bose polaron, and the central spin model. To capture the interplay of the Rydberg-electron spin dynamics and the orbital motion of atoms, we employ a new variational method that combines an impurity-decoupling transformation with a Gaussian ansatz for the bath particles. We find several unexpected features of this model that are not present in traditional impurity problems, including interaction-induced renormalization of the absorption spectrum that eludes simple explanations from molecular bound states, and long-lasting oscillations of the Rydberg-electron spin. We discuss generalizations of our analysis to other systems in atomic physics and quantum chemistry, where an electron excitation of high orbital quantum number interacts with a spinful quantum bath.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.183001

Matrix Product States: Entanglement, Symmetries, and State Transformations

D. Sauerwein, A. Molnar, J.I. Cirac, B. Kraus

Physical Review Letters 123 (7), 170504 (2019).

Show Abstract

We analyze entanglement in the family of translationally invariant matrix product states (MPS). We give a criterion to determine when two states can be transformed into each other by local operations with a nonvanishing probability, a central question in entanglement theory. This induces a classification within this family of states, which we explicitly carry out for the simplest, nontrivial MPS. We also characterize all symmetries of translationally invariant MPS, both global and local (inhomogeneous). We illustrate our results with examples of states that are relevant in different physical contexts.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.170504

Tube algebras, excitations statistics and compactification in gauge models of topological phases

A. Bullivant, C. Delcamp

Journal of High Energy Physics 10, 216 (2019).

Show Abstract

We consider lattice Hamiltonian realizations of (d+1)-dimensional Dijkgraaf- Witten theory. In (2+1) d, it is well-known that the Hamiltonian yields point-like excita- tions classified by irreducible representations of the twisted quantum double. This can be confirmed using a tube algebra approach. In this paper, we propose a generalisation of this strategy that is valid in any dimensions. We then apply this generalisation to derive the algebraic structure of loop-like excitations in (3+1) d, namely the twisted quantum triple. The irreducible representations of the twisted quantum triple algebra correspond to the simple loop-like excitations of the model. Similarly to its (2+1) d counterpart, the twisted quantum triple comes equipped with a compatible comultiplication map and an R-matrix that encode the fusion and the braiding statistics of the loop-like excitations, respectively. Moreover, we explain using the language of loop-groupoids how a model defined on a man- ifold that is n-times compactified can be expressed in terms of another model in n-lower dimensions. This can in turn be used to recast higher-dimensional tube algebras in terms of lower dimensional analogues.

DOI: 10.1007/JHEP10(2019)216

Ferromagnetic Resonance with Magnetic Phase Selectivity by Means of Resonant Elastic X-Ray Scattering on a Chiral Magnet

S. Pollath, A. Aqeel, A. Bauer, C. Luo, H. Ryll, F. Radu, C. Pfleiderer, G. Woltersdorf, C.H. Back

Physical Review Letters 123 (16), 167201 (2019).

Show Abstract

Cubic chiral magnets, such as Cu2OSeO3, exhibit a variety of noncollinear spin textures, including a trigonal lattice of spin whirls, the so-called skyrmions. Using magnetic resonant elastic x-ray scattering (REXS) on a crystalline Bragg peak and its magnetic satellites while exciting the sample with magnetic fields at gigahertz frequencies, we probe the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) modes of these spin textures by means of the scattered intensity. Most notably, the three eigenmodes of the skyrmion lattice are detected with large sensitivity. As this novel technique, which we label REXS FMR, is carried out at distinct positions in reciprocal space, it allows us to distinguish contributions originating from different magnetic states, providing information on the precise character, weight, and mode mixing as a prerequisite of tailored excitations for applications.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.167201

Coupling ultracold matter to dynamical gauge fields in optical lattices: From flux attachment to Z2 lattice gauge theories

L. Barbiero, C. Schweizer, M. Aidelsburger, E. Demler, N. Goldman and F. Grusdt.

Science Advances 5, (2019).

Show Abstract

From the standard model of particle physics to strongly correlated electrons, various physical settings are formulated in terms of matter coupled to gauge fields. Quantum simulations based on ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a promising avenue to study these complex systems and unravel the underlying many-body physics. Here, we demonstrate how quantized dynamical gauge fields can be created in mixtures of ultracold atoms in optical lattices, using a combination of coherent lattice modulation with strong interactions. Specifically, we propose implementation of Z2 lattice gauge theories coupled to matter, reminiscent of theories previously introduced in high-temperature superconductivity. We discuss a range of settings from zero-dimensional toy models to ladders featuring transitions in the gauge sector to extended two-dimensional systems. Mastering lattice gauge theories in optical lattices constitutes a new route toward the realization of strongly correlated systems, with properties dictated by an interplay of dynamical matter and gauge fields.

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav7444

Analogue quantum chemistry simulation

J. Argüello-Luengo, A. González-Tudela, T. Shi, P. Zoller & I. Cirac.

Nature 574, 215-218 (2019).

Show Abstract

Computing the electronic structure of molecules with high precision is a central challenge in the field of quantum chemistry. Despite the success of approximate methods, tackling this problem exactly with conventional computers remains a formidable task. Several theoretical and experimental attempts have been made to use quantum computers to solve chemistry problems, with early proof-of-principle realizations done digitally. An appealing alternative to the digital approach is analogue quantum simulation, which does not require a scalable quantum computer and has already been successfully applied to solve condensed matter physics problems. However, not all available or planned setups can be used for quantum chemistry problems, because it is not known how to engineer the required Coulomb interactions between them. Here we present an analogue approach to the simulation of quantum chemistry problems that relies on the careful combination of two technologies: ultracold atoms in optical lattices and cavity quantum electrodynamics. In the proposed simulator, fermionic atoms hopping in an optical potential play the role of electrons, additional optical potentials provide the nuclear attraction, and a single-spin excitation in a Mott insulator mediates the electronic Coulomb repulsion with the help of a cavity mode. We determine the operational conditions of the simulator and test it using a simple molecule. Our work opens up the possibility of efficiently computing the electronic structures of molecules with analogue quantum simulation.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1614-4

Period-n Discrete Time Crystals and Quasicrystals with Ultracold Bosons

A. Pizzi, J. Knolle, A. Nunnenkamp

Physical Review Letter 123 (15), 150601 (2019).

Show Abstract

We investigate the out-of-equilibrium properties of a system of interacting bosons in a ring lattice. We present a Floquet driving that induces clockwise (counterclockwise) circulation of the particles among the odd (even) sites of the ring which can be mapped to a fully connected model of clocks of two counterrotating species. The clocklike motion of the particles is at the core of a period-n discrete time crystal where L = 2n is the number of lattice sites. In the presence of a "staircaselike" on-site potential, we report the emergence of a second characteristic timescale in addition to the period n-tupling. This new timescale depends on the microscopic parameters of the Hamiltonian and is incommensurate with the Floquet period, underpinning a dynamical phase we call "time quasicrystal." The rich dynamical phase diagram also features a thermal phase and an oscillatory phase, all of which we investigate and characterize. Our simple, yet rich model can be realized with state-of-the-art ultracold atoms experiments.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.150601

Floquet approach to Z2 lattice gauge theories with ultracold atoms in optical lattices

C. Schweizer, F. Grusdt, M. Berngruber, L. Barbiero, E. Demler, N. Goldman, I. Bloch, M. Aidelsburger.

Nature Physics (2019).

Show Abstract

Quantum simulation has the potential to investigate gauge theories in strongly-interacting regimes, which are up to now inaccessible through conventional numerical techniques. Here, we take a first step in this direction by implementing a Floquet-based method for studying Z2 lattice gauge theories using two-component ultracold atoms in a double-well potential. For resonant periodic driving at the on-site interaction strength and an appropriate choice of the modulation parameters, the effective Floquet Hamiltonian exhibits Z2 symmetry. We study the dynamics of the system for different initial states and critically contrast the observed evolution with a theoretical analysis of the full time-dependent Hamiltonian of the periodically-driven lattice model. We reveal challenges that arise due to symmetry-breaking terms and outline potential pathways to overcome these limitations. Our results provide important insights for future studies of lattice gauge theories based on Floquet techniques.

DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0649-7

Entanglement growth after inhomogenous quenches

T. Rakovszky, C.W. von Keyserlingk, F. Pollmann

Physical Review B 100 (12), 125139 (2019).

Show Abstract

We study the growth of entanglement in quantum systems with a conserved quantity exhibiting diffusive transport, focusing on how initial inhomogeneities are imprinted on the entropy. We propose a simple effective model, which generalizes the minimal cut picture of Jonay, Huse, and Nahum [arXiv:803.00089] in such a way that the line tension" of the cut depends on the local entropy density. In the case of noisy dynamics, this is described by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation coupled to a diffusing field. We investigate the resulting dynamics and find that initial inhomogeneities of the conserved charge give rise to features in the entanglement profile, whose width and height both grow in time as alpha root t. In particular, for a domain wall quench, diffusion restricts entanglement growth to be S-VN less than or similar to root t. We find that for charge density wave initial states, these features in the entanglement profile are present even after the charge density has equilibrated. Our conclusions are supported by numerical results on random circuits and deterministic spin chains.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.125139

High spin-wave propagation length consistent with low damping in a metallic ferromagnet

L. Flacke, L. Liensberger, M. Althammer, H. Huebl, S. Geprags, K. Schultheiss, A. Buzdakov, T. Hula, H. Schultheiss, E.R.J. Edwards, H.T. Nembach, J.M. Shaw, R. Gross, M. Weiler

Applied Physics Letters 115 (12), 122402 (2019).

Show Abstract

We report ultralow intrinsic magnetic damping in Co25Fe75 heterostructures, reaching the low 10(-4) regime at room temperature. By using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance technique in out-of-plane geometry, we extracted the dynamic magnetic properties of several Co25Fe75-based heterostructures with varying ferromagnetic layer thicknesses. By measuring radiative damping and spin pumping effects, we found the intrinsic damping of a 26 nm thick sample to be alpha 0 less than or similar to 3.18x10-4. Furthermore, using Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we measured spin-wave propagation lengths of up to (21 +/- 1) mu m in a 26 nm thick Co25Fe75 heterostructure at room temperature, which is in excellent agreement with the measured damping.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5102132

Magnetoelasticity of Co25Fe75 thin films

D. Schwienbacher, M. Pernpeintner, L. Liensberger, E.R.J. Edwards, H.T. Nembach, J.M. Shaw, M. Weiler, R. Gross, H. Huebl

Journal of Applied Physics 126 (10), 103902 (2019).

Show Abstract

We investigate the magnetoelastic properties of Co25Fe75 and Co10Fe90 thin films by measuring the mechanical properties of a doubly clamped string resonator covered with multilayer stacks containing these films. For the magnetostrictive constants, we find lambda Co25Fe75=(-20.68 +/- 0.25)x10-6 and lambda Co10Fe90=(-9.80 +/- 0.12)x10-6 at room temperature, in contrast to the positive magnetostriction previously found in bulk CoFe crystals. Co25Fe75 thin films unite low damping and sizable magnetostriction and are thus a prime candidate for micromechanical magnonic applications, such as sensors and hybrid phonon-magnon systems.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5116314

Exchange-Enhanced Ultrastrong Magnon-Magnon Coupling in a Compensated Ferrimagnet

L. Liensberger, A. Kamra, H. Maier-Flaig, S. Geprags, A. Erb, S.T.B. Goennenwein, R. Gross, W. Belzig, H. Huebl, M. Weiler

Physical Review Letters 123 (11), 117204 (2019).

Show Abstract

We experimentally study the spin dynamics in a gadolinium iron garnet single crystal using broadband ferromagnetic resonance. Close to the ferrimagnetic compensation temperature, we observe ultrastrong coupling of clockwise and counterclockwise magnon modes. The magnon-magnon coupling strength reaches almost 40% of the mode frequency and can be tuned by varying the direction of the external magnetic field. We theoretically explain the observed mode coupling as arising from the broken rotational symmetry due to a weak magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The effect of this anisotropy is exchange enhanced around the ferrimagnetic compensation point.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.117204

Boundary central charge from bulk odd viscosity: Chiral superfluids

O. Golan, C. Hoyos, S. Moroz

Physical Review B 100 (10), 104512 (2019).

Show Abstract

We derive a low-energy effective field theory for chiral superfluids, which accounts for both spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermionic ground-state topology. Using the theory, we show that the odd (or Hall) viscosity tensor, at small wave vector, contains a dependence on the chiral central charge c of the boundary degrees of freedom, as well as additional nonuniversal contributions. We identify related bulk observables which allow for a bulk measurement of c. In Galilean invariant superfluids, only the particle current and density responses to strain and electromagnetic fields are required. To complement our results, the effective theory is benchmarked against a perturbative computation within a canonical microscopic model.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.104512

Matrix product states approaches to operator spreading in ergodic quantum systems

K. Hemery, F. Pollmann, D.J. Luitz

Physical Review B 100 (10), 104303 (2019).

Show Abstract

We review different matrix-product-state (MPS) approaches to study the spreading of operators in generic nonintegrable quantum systems. As a common ground to all methods, we quantify this spreading by means of the Frobenius norm of the commutator of a spreading operator with a local operator, which is usually referred to as the out-of-time-order correlation (OTOC) function. We compare two approaches based on matrix-product states in the Schrodinger picture: the time-dependent block decimation (TEBD) and the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP), as well as TEBD based on matrix-product operators directly in the Heisenberg picture. The results of all methods are compared to numerically exact results using Krylov space exact time evolution. We find that for the Schrodinger picture, the TDVP algorithm performs better than the TEBD algorithm.

Moreover, the tails of the OTOC are accurately obtained both by TDVP MPS and TEBD MPO. They are in very good agreement with exact results at short times, and appear to be converged in bond dimensions even at longer times. However, the growth and saturation regimes are not well captured by either of the methods.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.104303

Signatures of information scrambling in the dynamics of the entanglement spectrum

T. Rakovszky, S. Gopalakrishnan, S.A. Parameswaran, F. Pollmann

Physical Review B 100 (12), 125115 (2019).

Show Abstract

We examine the time evolution of the entanglement spectrum of a small subsystem of a nonintegrable spin chain following a quench from a product state. We identify signatures in this entanglement spectrum of the distinct dynamical velocities (related to entanglement and operator spreading) that control thermalization. We show that the onset of level repulsion in the entanglement spectrum occurs on different timescales depending on the "entanglement energy," and that this dependence reflects the shape of the operator front. Level repulsion spreads across the entire entanglement spectrum on a timescale that is parametrically shorter than that for full thermalization of the subsystem. This timescale is also close to when the mutual information between individual spins at the ends of the subsystem reaches its maximum. We provide an analytical understanding of this phenomenon and show supporting numerical data for both random unitary circuits and a microscopic Hamiltonian.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.125115

Photon Correlation Spectroscopy of Luminescent Quantum Defects in Carbon Nanotubes

M. Nutz, J. Zhang, M. Kim, H. Kwon, X. Wu, Y. Wang, A. Högele.

Nano Letters (2019).

Show Abstract

Defect-decorated single-wall carbon nanotubes have shown rapid growing potential for imaging, sensing, and the development of room-temperature single-photon sources. The key to the highly nonclassical emission statistics is the discrete energy spectrum of defect-localized excitons. However, variations in defect configurations give rise to distinct spectral bands that may compromise single-photon efficiency and purity in practical devices, and experimentally it has been challenging to study the exciton population distribution among the various defect-specific states. Here, we performed photon correlation spectroscopy on hexyl-decorated single-wall carbon nanotubes to unravel the dynamics and competition between neutral and charged exciton populations. With autocorrelation measurements at the single-tube level, we prove the nonclassical photon emission statistics of defect-specific exciton and trion photoluminescence and identify their mutual exclusiveness in photoemissive events with cross-correlation spectroscopy. Moreover, our study reveals the presence of a dark state with population-shelving time scales between 10 and 100 ns. These new insights will guide further development of chemically tailored carbon nanotube states for quantum photonics applications.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02553

Anisotropic Strain-Induced Soliton Movement Changes Stacking Order and Band Structure of Graphene Multilayers: Implications for Charge Transport

F.R: Geisenhof, F. Winterer, S. Wakolbinger, T.D. Gokus, Y.C. Durmaz, D. Priesack, J. Lenz, F. Keilmann, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, R. Guerrero-Aviles, M. Pelc, A. Ayuela, R.T. Weitz

ACS Applied Nano Materials 2 (9), 6067-6075 (2019).

Show Abstract

The crystal structure of solid-state matter greatly affects its electronic properties. For example, in multilayer graphene, precise knowledge of the lateral layer arrangement is crucial, since the most stable configurations, Bernal and rhombohedral stacking, exhibit very different electronic properties. Nevertheless, both stacking orders can coexist within one flake, separated by a strain soliton that can host topologically protected states. Clearly, accessing the transport properties of the two stackings and the soliton is of high interest. However, the stacking orders can transform into one another, and therefore, the seemingly trivial question of how reliable electrical contact can be made to either stacking order can a priori not be answered easily. Here, we show that manufacturing metal contacts to multilayer graphene can move solitons by several ism, unidirectionally enlarging Bernal domains due to arising mechanical strain. Furthermore, we also find that during dry transfer of multilayer graphene onto hexagonal boron nitride, such a transformation can happen. Using density functional theory modeling, we corroborate that anisotropic deformations of the multilayer graphene lattice decrease the rhombohedral stacking stability. Finally, we have devised systematics to avoid soliton movement, and how to reliably realize contacts to both stacking configurations, which will aid to reliably access charge transport in both stacking configurations.

DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.9b01603

Type and Cotype Constants and the Linear Stability of Wigner's Symmetry Theorem

J. Cuesta

Symmetry-Basel 11 (9), 1107 (2019).

Show Abstract

We study the relation between almost-symmetries and the geometry of Banach spaces. We show that any almost-linear extension of a transformation that preserves transition probabilities up to an additive error admits an approximation by a linear map, and the quality of the approximation depends on the type and cotype constants of the involved spaces.

DOI: 10.3390/sym11091107

Reachability in Infinite-Dimensional Unital Open Quantum Systems with Switchable GKS-Lindblad Generators

F. vom Ende, G. Dirr, M. Keyl, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen

Open Systems & Information Dynamics 26 (3), 1950014 (2019).

Show Abstract

In quantum systems theory one of the fundamental problems boils down to: given an initial state, which final states can be reached by the dynamic system in question. Here we consider infinite-dimensional open quantum dynamical systems following a unital Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation extended by controls. More precisely, their time evolution shall be governed by an inevitable potentially unbounded Hamiltonian drift term H-0, finitely many bounded control Hamiltonians H-j allowing for ( at least) piecewise constant control amplitudes u(j) (t) is an element of R plus a bang-bang (i.e., on-off) switchable noise term in Kossakowski-Lindblad form. Generalizing standard majorization results from finite Gamma(V) infinite dimensions, we show that such bilinear quantum control systems allow to approximately reach any target state majorized by the initial one as up to now it only has been known in finite dimensional analogues. The proof of the result is currently limited to the bounded control Hamiltonians H-j and for noise terms Gamma(V) with compact normal V.

DOI: 10.1142/S1230161219500148

Differential Power Analysis Attacks from an Information-Theoretic Perspective

A. Grigorescu, H. Boche

IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW) 45-49 (2019).

Show Abstract

Differential power analysis (DPA) attacks exploit the variance in power measurements of cryptographic devices to recover secret keys. What can an adversary achieve with power measurements? In this work, information-theoretic tools are used to quantify the amount of sensitive information revealed by a power measurement. It is shown that in order to find a secret key, an adversary needs to try a number of different keys. The number is exponential to the key size and the exponent is given by the key's entropy, conditioned on the power measurement.

Anomalous spin Hall angle of a metallic ferromagnet determined by a multiterminal spin injection/detection device

T. Wimmer, B. Coester, S. Geprags, R. Gross, S.T.B. Goennenwein, H. Huebl, M. Althammer

Applied Physics Letters 115 (9), 092404 (2019).

Show Abstract

We report on the determination of the anomalous spin Hall angle in the ferromagnetic metal alloy cobalt-iron (Co25Fe75, CoFe). This is accomplished by measuring the spin injection/detection efficiency in a multiterminal device with nanowires of platinum (Pt) and CoFe deposited onto the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG). Applying a spin-resistor model to our multiterminal spin transport data, we determine the magnon conductivity in YIG, the spin conductance at the YIG/CoFe interface, and finally the anomalous spin Hall angle of CoFe as a function of its spin diffusion length in a single device. Our experiments clearly reveal a negative anomalous spin Hall angle of the ferromagnetic metal CoFe, but a vanishing ordinary spin Hall angle. This work, therefore, adds new observations to the results reported in Tian et al. [Phys. Rev. B 94, 020403 (2016)] and Das et al. [Phys. Rev. B 96, 220408(R) (2017)] , where the authors found finite contributions of the ordinary spin Hall angle in the ferromagnetic metals Co and Permalloy. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5101032

Many-body chaos near a thermal phase transition

A. Schuckert, M. Knap.

SciPost Physics 7, 022 (2019).

Show Abstract

We study many-body chaos in a (2+1)D relativistic scalar field theory at high temperatures in the classical statistical approximation, which captures the quantum critical regime and the thermal phase transition from an ordered to a disordered phase. We evaluate out-of-time ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and find that the associated Lyapunov exponent increases linearly with temperature in the quantum critical regime, and approaches the non-interacting limit algebraically in terms of a fluctuation parameter. OTOCs spread ballistically in all regimes, also at the thermal phase transition, where the butterfly velocity is maximal. Our work contributes to the understanding of the relation between quantum and classical many-body chaos and our method can be applied to other field theories dominated by classical modes at long wavelengths.

DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.7.2.022

Cavity-control of interlayer excitons in van der Waals heterostructures

M. Forg, L. Colombier, R.K. Patel, J. Lindlau, A.D. Mohite, H. Yamaguchi, M.M. Glazov, D. Hunger, A. Hogele

Nature Communications 10, 3697 (2019).

Show Abstract

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides integrated in optical microcavities host exciton-polaritons as a hallmark of the strong light-matter coupling regime. Analogous concepts for hybrid light-matter systems employing spatially indirect excitons with a permanent electric dipole moment in heterobilayer crystals promise realizations of exciton-polariton gases and condensates with inherent dipolar interactions. Here, we implement cavity-control of interlayer excitons in vertical MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures. Our experiments demonstrate the Purcell effect for heterobilayer emission in cavity-modified photonic environments, and quantify the light-matter coupling strength of interlayer excitons. The results will facilitate further developments of dipolar exciton-polariton gases and condensates in hybrid cavity - van der Waals heterostructure systems.

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11620-z

MIEZE Neutron Spin-Echo Spectroscopy of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

C. Franz, S. Saubert, A. Wendl, F.X. Haslbeck, O. Soltwedel, J.K. Jochum, L. SPitz, J. Kindervater, A. Bauer, P. Boni, C. Pfleiderer

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 88 (8), 081002 (2019).

Show Abstract

Recent progress in neutron spin-echo spectroscopy by means of longitudinal Modulation of IntEnsity with Zero Effort (MIEZE) is reviewed. Key technical characteristics are summarized which highlight that the parameter range accessible in momentum and energy, as well as its limitations, are extremely well understood and controlled. Typical experimental data comprising quasi-elastic and inelastic scattering are presented, featuring magneto-elastic coupling and crystal field excitations in Ho2Ti2O7, the skyrmion lattice to paramagnetic transition under applied magnetic field in MnSi, ferromagnetic criticality and spin waves in Fe. In addition bench marking studies of the molecular dynamics in H2O are reported. Taken together. the advantages of MIEZE spectroscopy in studies at small and intermediate momentum transfers comprise an exceptionally wide dynamic range of over seven orders of magnitude, the capability to perform straight forward studies on depolarizing samples or under depolarizing sample environments, as well as on incoherently scattering materials.

DOI: 10.7566/JPSJ.88.081002

Topological proximity effects in a Haldane graphene bilayer system

P. Cheng, P. W. Klein, K. Plekhanov, K. Sengstock, M. Aidelsburger, C. Weitenberg, and K. Le Hur.

Physical Review B 100, 081107(R) (2019).

Show Abstract

We reveal a proximity effect between a topological band (Chern) insulator described by a Haldane model and spin-polarized Dirac particles of a graphene layer. Coupling weakly the two systems through a tunneling term in the bulk, the topological Chern insulator induces a gap and an opposite Chern number on the Dirac particles at half filling, resulting in a sign flip of the Berry curvature at one Dirac point. We study different aspects of the bulk-edge correspondence and present protocols to observe the evolution of the Berry curvature as well as two counterpropagating (protected) edge modes with different velocities. In the strong-coupling limit, the energy spectrum shows flat bands. Therefore we build a perturbation theory and address further the bulk-edge correspondence. We also show the occurrence of a topological insulating phase with Chern number one when only the lowest band is filled. We generalize the effect to Haldane bilayer systems with asymmetric Semenoff masses. Moreover, we propose an alternative definition of the topological invariant on the Bloch sphere.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.081107

Universal random codes: capacity regions of the compound quantum multiple-access channel with one classical and one quantum sender

H. Boche, G. Janssen, S. Saeedinaeeni

Quantum Information Processing 18 (8), 246 (2019).

Show Abstract

We consider the compound memoryless quantum multiple-access channel (QMAC) with two sending terminals. In this model, the transmission is governed by the memoryless extensions of a completely positive and trace preserving map which can be any element of a prescribed set of possible maps. We study a communication scenario, where one of the senders aims for transmission of classical messages, while the other sender sends quantum information. Combining powerful universal random coding results for classical and quantum information transmission over point-to-point channels, we establish universal codes for the mentioned two-sender task. Conversely, we prove that the two-dimensional rate region achievable with these codes is optimal. In consequence, we obtain a multi-letter characterization of the capacity region of each compound QMAC for the considered transmission task.

DOI: 10.1007/s11128-019-2358-7

Low-Scaling Self-Consistent Minimization of a Density Matrix Based Random Phase Approximation Method in the Atomic Orbital Space

D. Graf, M. Beuerle, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 15 (8), 4468-4477 (2019).

Show Abstract

An efficient minimization of the random phase approximation (RPA) energy with respect to the one-particle density matrix in the atomic orbital space is presented. The problem of imposing full self-consistency on functionals depending on the potential itself is bypassed by approximating the RPA Hamiltonian on the basis of the well-known Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian making our self-consistent RPA method completely parameter-free. It is shown that the new method not only outperforms post-Kohn-Sham RPA in describing noncovalent interactions but also gives accurate dipole moments demonstrating the high quality of the calculated densities. Furthermore, the main drawback of atomic orbital based methods, in increasing the prefactor as compared to their canonical counterparts, is overcome by introducing Cholesky decomposed projectors allowing the use of large basis sets. Exploiting the locality of atomic and/or Cholesky orbitals enables us to present a self-consistent RPA method which shows asymptotically quadratic scaling opening the door for calculations on large molecular systems.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.9b00444

Ultracompact Photodetection in Atomically Thin MoSe2

M. Blauth, G. Vest, S.L. Rosemary, M. Prechtl, O. Hartwig, M. Jurgensen, M. Kaniber, A.V. Stier, J.J. Finley

ACS Photonics 6 (8), 1902-1909 (2019).

Show Abstract

Excitons in atomically thin semiconductors interact very strongly with electromagnetic radiation and are necessarily close to a surface. Here, we exploit the deep-subwavelength confinement of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the edge of a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and their proximity of 2D excitons in an adjacent atomically thin semiconductor to build an ultracompact photodetector. When subject to far-field excitation we show that excitons are created throughout the dielectric gap region of our waveguide and converted to free carriers primarily at the anode of our device. In the near-field regime, strongly confined SPPs are launched, routed and detected in a 20 nm narrow region at the interface between the waveguide and the monolayer semiconductor. This leads to an ultracompact active detector region of only similar to 0.03 mu m(2) that absorbs 86% of the propagating energy in the SPP. Due to the electromagnetic character of the SPPs, the spectral response is essentially identical to the far-field regime, exhibiting strong resonances close to the exciton energies. While most of our experiments are performed on monolayer thick MoSe2, the photocurrent-per-layer increases super linearly in multilayer devices due to the suppression of radiative exciton recombination. These results demonstrate an integrated device for nanoscale routing and detection of light with the potential for on-chip integration at technologically relevant, few-nanometer length scales.

DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.9b00785

Are almost-symmetries almost linear?

J. Cuesta, M.M. Wolf

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60 (8), 082101 (2019).

Show Abstract

It d-pends. Wigner's symmetry theorem implies that transformations that preserve transition probabilities of pure quantum states are linear maps on the level of density operators. We investigate the stability of this implication. On the one hand, we show that any transformation that preserves transition probabilities up to an additive epsilon in a separable Hilbert space admits a weak linear approximation, i.e., one relative to any fixed observable. This implies the existence of a linear approximation that is 4 epsilon d-close in Hilbert-Schmidt norm, with d the Hilbert space dimension. On the other hand, we prove that a linear approximation that is close in norm and independent of d does not exist in general. To this end, we provide a lower bound that depends logarithmically on d.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5087539

Polarization plateaus in hexagonal water ice I-h

M. Gohlke, R. Moessner, F. Pollmann

Physical Review B 100 (1), 014206 (2019).

Show Abstract

The protons in water ice are subject to so-called ice rules resulting in an extensive ground-state degeneracy. We study how an external electric field reduces this ground-state degeneracy in hexagonal water ice I-h within a minimal model. We observe polarization plateaus when the field is aligned along the [001] and [010] directions. In each case, one plateau occurs at intermediate polarization with reduced but still extensive degeneracy. The remaining ground states can be mapped to dimer models on the honeycomb and the square lattice, respectively. Upon tilting the external field, we observe an order-disorder transition of Kasteleyn type into a plateau at saturated polarization and vanishing entropy. This transition is investigated analytically using the Kasteleyn matrix and numerically using a modified directed-loop Monte Carlo simulation. The protons in both cases exhibit algebraically decaying correlations. Moreover, the features of the static structure factor are discussed.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.014206

Emergent Glassy Dynamics in a Quantum Dimer Model

J. Feldmeier, F. Pollmann, and M. Knap.

Physical Review Letters 123, 040601 (2019).

Show Abstract

We consider the quench dynamics of a two-dimensional quantum dimer model and determine the role of its kinematic constraints. We interpret the nonequilibrium dynamics in terms of the underlying equilibrium phase transitions consisting of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition between a columnar ordered valence bond solid (VBS) and a valence bond liquid (VBL), as well as a first-order transition between a staggered VBS and the VBL. We find that quenches from a columnar VBS are ergodic and both order parameters and spatial correlations quickly relax to their thermal equilibrium. By contrast, the staggered side of the first-order transition does not display thermalization on numerically accessible timescales. Based on the model’s kinematic constraints, we uncover a mechanism of relaxation that rests on emergent, highly detuned multidefect processes in a staggered background, which gives rise to slow, glassy dynamics at low temperatures even in the thermodynamic limit.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.040601

String patterns in the doped Hubbard model

C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, A. Bohrdt, M. Xu, M. Knap, E. Demler, F. Grusdt, M. Greiner, D. Greif.

Science 365, 251-256 (2019).

Show Abstract

Understanding strongly correlated quantum many-body states is one of the most difficult challenges in modern physics. For example, there remain fundamental open questions on the phase diagram of the Hubbard model, which describes strongly correlated electrons in solids. In this work, we realize the Hubbard Hamiltonian and search for specific patterns within the individual images of many realizations of strongly correlated ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. Upon doping a cold-atom antiferromagnet, we find consistency with geometric strings, entities that may explain the relationship between hole motion and spin order, in both pattern-based and conventional observables. Our results demonstrate the potential for pattern recognition to provide key insights into cold-atom quantum many-body systems.

DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3587

A Graph-Based Modular Coding Scheme Which Achieves Semantic Security

M. Wiese, H. Boche

IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) 822-826 (2019).

Show Abstract

It is investigated how to achieve semantic security for the wiretap channel. A new type of functions called biregular irreducible (BRI) functions, similar to universal hash functions, is introduced. BRI functions provide a universal method of establishing secrecy. It is proved that the known secrecy rates of any discrete and Gaussian wiretap channel are achievable with semantic security by modular wiretap codes constructed from a BRI function and an error-correcting code. A characterization of BRI functions in terms of edge-disjoint biregular graphs on a common vertex set is derived. This is used to study examples of BRI functions and to construct new ones.

The Solvability Complexity Index of Sampling-based Hilbert Transform Approximations

H. Boche, V. Pohl

13th International Conference on Sampling Theory and Applications (SampTA) (2019).

Show Abstract

This paper determines the solvability complexity index (SCI) and a corresponding tower of algorithms for the computational problem of calculating the Hilbert transform of a continuous function with finite energy from its samples. It is shown that the SCI of these algorithms is equal to 2 and that the SCI is independent on whether the calculation is done by linear or by general (i.e. linear and/or non-linear) algorithms.

Thermal tensor renormalization group simulations of square-lattice quantum spin models

H. Li, B.B. Chen, Z.Y. Chen, J. von Delft, A.R.A. Weichselbaum, W. Li

Physical Review B 100 (4), 045110 (2019).

Show Abstract

In this work, we benchmark the well-controlled and numerically accurate exponential thermal tensor renormalization group (XTRG) in the simulation of interacting spin models in two dimensions. Finite temperature introduces a finite thermal correlation length xi, such that for system sizes L >> xi finite-size calculations actually simulate the thermodynamic limit. In this paper, we focus on the square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (SLH) and quantum Ising models (QIM) on open and cylindrical geometries up to width W = 10. We explore various one-dimensional mapping paths in the matrix product operator (MPO) representation, whose performance is clearly shown to be geometry dependent. We benchmark against quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data, yet also the series-expansion thermal tensor network results. Thermal properties including the internal energy, specific heat, and spin structure factors, etc. are computed with high precision, obtaining excellent agreement with QMC results. XTRG also allows us to reach remarkably low temperatures. For SLH, we obtain an energy per site u*(g) similar or equal to -0.6694(4) and a spontaneous magnetization m*(S) similar or equal to 0.30(1) already consistent with the ground-state properties, which is obtained from extrapolated low-T thermal data on W <= 8 cylinders and W <= 10 open strips, respectively. We extract an exponential divergence versus T of the structure factor S(M), as well as the correlation length xi, at the ordering wave vector M = (pi, pi), which represents the renormalized classical behavior and can be observed over a narrow but appreciable temperature window, by analyzing the finite-size data by XTRG simulations. For the QIM with a finite-temperature phase transition, we employ several thermal quantities, including the specific heat, Binder ratio, as well as the MPO entanglement to determine the critical temperature T-c.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.045110

Putative spin-nematic phase in BaCdVO(PO4)(2)

K. Skoulatos, F. Rucker, G.J. Nilsen, A. Bertin, E. Pomjakushina, J. Olliver, A. Schneidewind, R. Georgii, O. Zaharko, L. Keller, C. Ruegg, C. Pfleiderer, B. Schmidt, N. Shannon, A. Kriele, A. Senyshyn, A. Smerald

Physical Review B 100 (1), 014405 (2019).

Show Abstract

We report neutron-scattering and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the two-dimensional spin-1/2 frustrated magnet BaCdVO(PO4)(2). At temperatures well below T-N approximate to 1 K, we show that only 34% of the spin moment orders in an up-up-down-down stripe structure. Dominant magnetic diffuse scattering and comparison to published muon-spin-rotation measurements indicates that the remaining 66% is fluctuating. This demonstrates the presence of strong frustration, associated with competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions, and points to a subtle ordering mechanism driven by magnon interactions. On applying magnetic field, we find that at T = 0.1 K the magnetic order vanishes at 3.8 T, whereas magnetic saturation is reached only above 4.5 T. We argue that the putative high-field phase is a realization of the long-sought bond-spin-nematic state.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.014405

Classifying snapshots of the doped Hubbard model with machine learning

A. Bohrdt, C. S. Chiu, G. Ji, M. Xu, D. Greif, M. Greiner, E. Demler, F. Grusdt und M. Knap.

Nature Physics (2019).

Show Abstract

Quantum gas microscopes for ultracold atoms can provide high-resolution real-space snapshots of complex many-body systems. We implement machine learning to analyse and classify such snapshots of ultracold atoms. Specifically, we compare the data from an experimental realization of the two-dimensional Fermi–Hubbard model to two theoretical approaches: a doped quantum spin liquid state of resonating valence bond type (1,2), and the geometric string theory (3,4), describing a state with hidden spin order. This technique considers all available information without a potential bias towards one particular theory by the choice of an observable and can therefore select the theory that is more predictive in general. Up to intermediate doping values, our algorithm tends to classify experimental snapshots as geometric-string-like, as compared to the doped spin liquid. Our results demonstrate the potential for machine learning in processing the wealth of data obtained through quantum gas microscopy for new physical insights.

DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0565-x

Optimal control of hybrid optomechanical systems for generating non-classical states of mechanical motion

V. Bergholm, W. Wieczorek, T. Schulte-Herbrueggen, M. Keyl

Quantum Science and Technology 4 (3), 034001 (2019).

Show Abstract

Cavity optomechanical systems are one of the leading experimental platforms for controlling mechanical motion in the quantum regime. We exemplify that the control over cavity optomechanical systems greatly increases by coupling the cavity also to a two-level system, thereby creating a hybrid optomechanical system. If the two-level system can be driven largely independently of the cavity, we show that the nonlinearity thus introduced enables us to steer the extended system to non-classical target states of the mechanical oscillator with Wigner functions exhibiting significant negative regions. We illustrate how to use optimal control techniques beyond the linear regime to drive the hybrid system from the near ground state into a Fock target state of the mechanical oscillator. We base our numerical optimization on realistic experimental parameters for exemplifying how optimal control enables the preparation of decidedly non-classical target states, where naive control schemes fail. Our results thus pave the way for applying the toolbox of optimal control in hybrid optomechanical systems for generating non-classical mechanical states.

DOI: 10.1088/2058-9565/ab1682

NetKet: A machine learning toolkit for many-body quantum systems

G. Carleo, K. Choo, D. Hofmann, J.E.T. Smith, T. Westerhout, F. Alet, E.J. Davis, S. Efthymiou, I. Glasser, S.H. Lin, M. Mauri, G. Mazzola, C.B. Mendl, E. van Nieuwenburg, O. O'Reilly, H. Theveniaut, G. Torlai, F. Vicentini, A. Wietek

Softwarex 20, 100311 (2019).

Show Abstract

We introduce NetKet, a comprehensive open source framework for the study of many-body quantum systems using machine learning techniques. The framework is built around a general and flexible implementation of neural-network quantum states, which are used as a variational ansatz for quantum wavefunctions. NetKet provides algorithms for several key tasks in quantum many-body physics and quantum technology, namely quantum state tomography, supervised learning from wavefunction data, and ground state searches for a wide range of customizable lattice models. Our aim is to provide a common platform for open research and to stimulate the collaborative development of computational methods at the interface of machine learning and many-body physics. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.softx.2019.100311

Removing staggered fermionic matter in U(N) and SU(N) lattice gauge theories

E. Zohar, J.I. Cirac

Physical Review D 99 (11), 114511 (2019).

Show Abstract

Gauge theories, through the local symmetry which is in their core, exhibit many local constraints, that must be taken care of and addressed in any calculation. In the Hamiltonian picture this is phrased through the Gauss laws, which are local constraints that restrict the physical Hilbert space and relate the matter and gauge degrees of freedom. In this work, we present a way that uses all the Gauss laws in lattice gauge theories with staggered fermions for completely removing the matter degrees of freedom, at the cost of locally extending the interaction range, breaking the symmetry and introducing new local constraints, due to the finiteness of the original local matter spaces.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.99.114511

Efficiently solving the dynamics of many-body localized systems at strong disorder

G. De Tomasi, F. Pollmann, M. Heyl

Physical Review B 99 (24), 241114 (2019).

Show Abstract

We introduce a method to efficiently study the dynamical properties of many-body localized systems in the regime of strong disorder and weak interactions. Our method reproduces qualitatively and quantitatively the time evolution with a polynomial effort in system size and independent of the desired time scales. We use our method to study quantum information propagation, correlation functions, and temporal fluctuations in one-and two-dimensional many-body localization systems. Moreover, we outline strategies for a further systematic improvement of the accuracy and we point out relations of our method to recent attempts to simulate the time dynamics of quantum many-body systems in classical or artificial neural networks.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.241114

Sub-ballistic Growth of Renyi Entropies due to Diffusion

T. Rakovszky, F. Pollmann, C.W. von Keyserlingk

Physical Review Letters 122 (25), 250602 (2019).

Show Abstract

We investigate the dynamics of quantum entanglement after a global quench and uncover a qualitative difference between the behavior of the von Neumann entropy and higher Renyi entropies. We argue that the latter generically grow sub-ballistically, as proportional to root t, in systems with diffusive transport. We provide strong evidence for this in both a U(1) symmetric random circuit model and in a paradigmatic nonintegrable spin chain, where energy is the sole conserved quantity. We interpret our results as a consequence of local quantum fluctuations in conserved densities, whose behavior is controlled by diffusion, and use the random circuit model to derive an effective description. We also discuss the late-time behavior of the second Renyi entropy and show that it exhibits hydrodynamic tails with three distinct power laws occurring for different classes of initial states.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.250602

Dynamical Topological Quantum Phase Transitions in Nonintegrable Models

I. Hagymasi, C. Hubig, O. Legeza, U. Schollwoeck

Physical Review Letters 122 (25), 250601 (2019).

Show Abstract

We consider sudden quenches across quantum phase transitions in the S = 1 XXZ model starting from the Haldane phase. We demonstrate that dynamical phase transitions may occur during these quenches that are identified by nonanalyticities in the rate function for the return probability. In addition, we show that the temporal behavior of the string order parameter is intimately related to the subsequent dynamical phase transitions. We furthermore find that the dynamical quantum phase transitions can be accompanied by enhanced two-site entanglement.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.250601

Site-selectively generated photon emitters in monolayer MoS2 via local helium ion irradiation

J. Klein, M. Lorke, M. Florian, F. Sigger, J. Wierzbowski, J. Cerne, K. Müller, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, U. Wurstbauer, M. Kaniber, M. Knap, R. Schmidt, J. Finley, A. Holleitner.

Nature Communications 10, Article number: 2755 (2019).

Show Abstract

Quantum light sources in solid-state systems are of major interest as a basic ingredient for integrated quantum photonic technologies. The ability to tailor quantum emitters via site-selective defect engineering is essential for realizing scalable architectures. However, a major difficulty is that defects need to be controllably positioned within the material. Here, we overcome this challenge by controllably irradiating monolayer MoS2 using a sub-nm focused helium ion beam to deterministically create defects. Subsequent encapsulation of the ion exposed MoS2 flake with high-quality hBN reveals spectrally narrow emission lines that produce photons in the visible spectral range. Based on ab-initio calculations we interpret these emission lines as stemming from the recombination of highly localized electron–hole complexes at defect states generated by the local helium ion exposure. Our approach to deterministically write optically active defect states in a single transition metal dichalcogenide layer provides a platform for realizing exotic many-body systems, including coupled single-photon sources and interacting exciton lattices that may allow the exploration of Hubbard physics.

DOI: 0.1038/s41467-019-10632-z

Secret message transmission over quantum channels under adversarial quantum noise: Secrecy capacity and super-activation

H. Boche, M. Cai, J. Nötzel, C. Deppe.

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60, 062202-1 to 062202-39 (2019).

Show Abstract

We determine the secrecy capacities of arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). Both secrecy capacities with average error probability and with maximal error probability are derived. Both derivations are based on one common code construction. The code we construct fulfills a stringent secrecy requirement, which is called the strong code concept. As an application of our result for secret message transmission over AVQCs, we determine when the secrecy capacity is a continuous function of the system parameters and completely characterize its discontinuity points both for average error criterion and for maximal error criterion. Furthermore, we prove the phenomenon “superactivation” for secrecy capacities of arbitrarily varying quantum channels, i.e., two quantum channels both with zero secrecy capacity, which, if used together, allow secure transmission with positive capacity. We give therewith an answer to the question “When is the secrecy capacity a continuous function of the system parameters?,” which has been listed as an open problem in quantum information problem page of the Institut für Theoretische Physik (ITP) Hannover. We also discuss the relations between the entanglement distillation capacity, the entanglement generating capacity, and the strong subspace transmission capacity for AVQCs. Ahlswede et al. made in 2013 the conjecture that the entanglement generating capacity of an AVQC is equal to its entanglement generating capacity under shared randomness assisted quantum coding. We demonstrate that the validity of this conjecture implies that the entanglement generating capacity, the entanglement distillation capacity, and the strong subspace transmission capacity of an AVQC are continuous functions of the system parameters. Consequently, under the premise of this conjecture, the secrecy capacities of an AVQC differ significantly from the general quantum capacities.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5019461

Atomtronics with a spin: Statistics of spin transport and nonequilibrium orthogonality catastrophe in cold quantum gases

J. S. You, R. Schmidt, D. A. Ivanov, M. Knap, and E. Demler.

Physical Review B 99, 214505 (2019).

Show Abstract

We propose to investigate the full counting statistics of nonequilibrium spin transport with an ultracold atomic quantum gas. The setup makes use of the spin control available in atomic systems to generate spin transport induced by an impurity atom immersed in a spin-imbalanced two-component Fermi gas. In contrast to solid-state realizations, in ultracold atoms spin relaxation and the decoherence from external sources is largely suppressed. As a consequence, once the spin current is turned off by manipulating the internal spin degrees of freedom of the Fermi system, the nonequilibrium spin population remains constant. Thus one can directly count the number of spins in each reservoir to investigate the full counting statistics of spin flips, which is notoriously challenging in solid-state devices. Moreover, using Ramsey interferometry, the dynamical impurity response can be measured. Since the impurity interacts with a many-body environment that is out of equilibrium, our setup provides a way to realize the nonequilibrium orthogonality catastrophe. Here, even for spin reservoirs initially prepared in a zero-temperature state, the Ramsey response exhibits an exponential decay, which is in contrast to the conventional power-law decay of Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. By mapping our system to a multistep Fermi sea, we are able to derive analytical expressions for the impurity response at late times. This allows us to reveal an intimate connection of the decay rate of the Ramsey contrast and the full counting statistics of spin flips.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.214505

Secure quantum remote state preparation of squeezed microwave states

S. Pogorzalek, K. G. Fedorov, M. Xu, A. Parra-Rodriguez, M. Sanz, M. Fischer, E. Xie, K. Inomata, Y. Nakamura, E. Solano, A. Marx, F. Deppe, R. Gross.

Nature Communications 10, 2604 (2019).

Show Abstract

Quantum communication protocols based on nonclassical correlations can be more efficient than known classical methods and offer intrinsic security over direct state transfer. In particular, remote state preparation aims at the creation of a desired and known quantum state at a remote location using classical communication and quantum entanglement. We present an experimental realization of deterministic continuous-variable remote state preparation in the microwave regime over a distance of 35 cm. By employing propagating two-mode squeezed microwave states and feedforward, we achieve the remote preparation of squeezed states with up to 1.6 dB of squeezing below the vacuum level. Finally, security of remote state preparation is investigated by using the concept of the one-time pad and measuring the von Neumann entropies. We find nearly identical values for the entropy of the remotely prepared state and the respective conditional entropy given the classically communicated information and, thus, demonstrate close-to-perfect security.

DOI:10.1063/1.5052414

Bosonic superfluid on lowest Landau level

S. Moroz, D. T. Son.

Physic Review Letters 122, 235301 (2019).

Show Abstract

We develop a low-energy effective field theory of a two-dimensional bosonic superfluid on the lowest Landau level at zero temperature and identify a Berry term that governs the dynamics of coarse-grained superfluid degrees of freedom. For an infinite vortex crystal we compute how the Berry term affects the low-energy spectrum of soft collective Tkachenko oscillations and non-dissipative Hall responses of the particle number current and stress tensor. This term gives rise to a quadratic in momentum term in the Hall conductivity, but does not generate a non-dissipative Hall viscosity.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.235301

Shaped pulses for transient compensation in quantum-limited electron spin resonance spectroscopy

S. Probst, V. Ranjan, Q. Ansel, R. Heeres, B. Albanese, E. Albertinale, D. Vion, D. Esteve, S.J. Glaser, D. Sugny, P. Bertet

Journal of Magnetic Resonance 303, 42-47 (2019).

Show Abstract

In high sensitivity inductive electron spin resonance spectroscopy, superconducting microwave resonators with large quality factors are employed. While they enhance the sensitivity, they also distort considerably the shape of the applied rectangular microwave control pulses, which limits the degree of control over the spin ensemble. Here, we employ shaped microwave pulses compensating the signal distortion to drive the spins faster than the resonator bandwidth. This translates into a shorter echo, with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The shaped pulses are also useful to minimize the dead-time of our spectrometer, which allows to reduce the wait time between successive drive pulses. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmr.2019.04.008

Avoided quasiparticle decay from strong quantum interactions

R. Verresen, R. Moessner und F. Pollmann.

Nature Physics 15, 750-753 (2019).

Show Abstract

Quantum states of matter—such as solids, magnets and topological phases—typically exhibit collective excitations (for example, phonons, magnons and anyons). These involve the motion of many particles in the system, yet, remarkably, act like a single emergent entity—a quasiparticle. Known to be long lived at the lowest energies, quasiparticles are expected to become unstable when encountering the inevitable continuum of many-particle excited states at high energies, where decay is kinematically allowed. Although this is correct for weak interactions, we show that strong interactions generically stabilize quasiparticles by pushing them out of the continuum. This general mechanism is straightforwardly illustrated in an exactly solvable model. Using state-of-the-art numerics, we find it at work in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (TLHAF). This is surprising given the expectation of magnon decay in this paradigmatic frustrated magnet. Turning to existing experimental data, we identify the detailed phenomenology of avoided decay in the TLHAF material Ba3CoSb2O9, and even in liquid helium, one of the earliest instances of quasiparticle decay. Our work unifies various phenomena above the universal low-energy regime in a comprehensive description. This broadens our window of understanding of many-body excitations, and provides a new perspective for controlling and stabilizing quantum matter in the strongly interacting regime.

DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0535-3

Quantum phases and topological properties of interacting fermions in one-dimensional superlattices

L. Stenzel, A. L. C. Hayward, C. Hubig, U. Schollwöck, F. Heidrich-Meisner.

Physical Review A 99, 053614 (2019).

Show Abstract

The realization of artificial gauge fields in ultracold atomic gases has opened up a path towards experimental studies of topological insulators and, as an ultimate goal, topological quantum matter in many-body systems. As an alternative to the direct implementation of two-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians that host the quantum Hall effect and its variants, topological charge-pumping experiments provide an additional avenue towards studying many-body systems. Here, we consider an interacting two-component gas of fermions realizing a family of one-dimensional superlattice Hamiltonians with onsite interactions and a unit cell of three sites, the ground states of which would be visited in an appropriately defined charge pump. First, we investigate the grand canonical quantum phase diagram of individual Hamiltonians, focusing on insulating phases. For a certain commensurate filling, there is a sequence of phase transitions from a band insulator to other insulating phases (related to the physics of ionic Hubbard models) for some members of the manifold of Hamiltonians. Second, we compute the Chern numbers for the whole manifold in a many-body formulation and show that, related to the aforementioned quantum phase transitions, a topological transition results in a change of the value and sign of the Chern number. We provide both an intuitive and a conceptual explanation and argue that these properties could be observed in quantum-gas experiments.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.99.053614

Quantum Zeno effect generalized

T. Möbus, M. Wolf.

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60, 052201 (2019).

Show Abstract

The quantum Zeno effect, in its original form, uses frequent projective measurements to freeze the evolution of a quantum system that is initially governed by a fixed Hamiltonian. We generalize this effect simultaneously in three directions by allowing open system dynamics, time-dependent evolution equations and general quantum operations in place of projective measurements. More precisely, we study Markovian master equations with bounded generators whose time dependence is Lipschitz continuous. Under a spectral gap condition on the quantum operation, we show how frequent measurements again freeze the evolution outside an invariant subspace. Inside this space, the evolution is described by a modified master equation.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5090912

Bounds on the bipartite entanglement entropy for oscillator systems with or without disorder

V. Beaud, J. Sieber and S. Warzel.

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 52, 235202 (2019).

Show Abstract

We give a direct alternative proof of an area law for the entanglement entropy of the ground state of disordered oscillator systems—a result due to Nachtergaele et al (2013 J. Math. Phys. 54 042110). Instead of studying the logarithmic negativity, we invoke the explicit formula for the entanglement entropy of Gaussian states to derive the upper bound. We also contrast this area law in the disordered case with divergent lower bounds on the entanglement entropy of the ground state of one-dimensional ordered oscillator chains.

DOI:10.1088/1751-8121/ab1924

Observation of many-body localization in an one-dimensional system with a single-particle mobility edge

T. Kohlert, S. Scherg, X. Li, H.P. Lüschen, S. Das Sarma, I. Bloch, M. Aidelsburger.

Physical Review Letters 122, 170403 (2019).

Show Abstract

We experimentally study many-body localization (MBL) with ultracold atoms in a weak one-dimensional quasiperiodic potential, which in the noninteracting limit exhibits an intermediate phase that is characterized by a mobility edge. We measure the time evolution of an initial charge density wave after a quench and analyze the corresponding relaxation exponents. We find clear signatures of MBL when the corresponding noninteracting model is deep in the localized phase. We also critically compare and contrast our results with those from a tight-binding Aubry-André model, which does not exhibit a single-particle intermediate phase, in order to identify signatures of a potential many-body intermediate phase.

DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.170403

Finite-temperature properties of interacting bosons on a two-leg flux ladder

M. Buser, F. Heidrich-Meisner, U. Schollwöck

Physical Review A 99, 053601 (2019).

Show Abstract

Quasi-one-dimensional lattice systems such as flux ladders with artificial gauge fields host rich quantum-phase diagrams that have attracted great interest. However, so far, most of the work on these systems has concentrated on zero-temperature phases while the corresponding finite-temperature regime remains largely unexplored. The question if and up to which temperature characteristic features of the zero-temperature phases persist is relevant in experimental realizations. We investigate a two-leg ladder lattice in a uniform magnetic field and concentrate our study on chiral edge currents and momentum-distribution functions, which are key observables in ultracold quantum-gas experiments. These quantities are computed for hard-core bosons as well as noninteracting bosons and spinless fermions at zero and finite temperatures. We employ a matrix-product-state based purification approach for the simulation of strongly interacting bosons at finite temperatures and analyze finite-size effects. Our main results concern the vortex-fluid-to-Meissner crossover of strongly interacting bosons. We demonstrate that signatures of the vortex-fluid phase can still be detected at elevated temperatures from characteristic finite-momentum maxima in the momentum-distribution functions, while the vortex-fluid phase leaves weaker fingerprints in the local rung currents and the chiral edge current. In order to determine the range of temperatures over which these signatures can be observed, we introduce a suitable measure for the contrast of these maxima. The results are condensed into a finite-temperature crossover diagram for hard-core bosons.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.99.053601

Incommensurate 2k(F) density wave quantum criticality in two-dimensional metals

J. Halblinger, D. Pimenov, M. Punk

Physical Review B 99 (19), 195102 (2019).

Show Abstract

We revisit the problem of two-dimensional metals in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition to incommensurate Q = 2k(F) charge-density-wave order, where the order-parameter wave vector Q connects two hot spots on the Fermi surface with parallel tangents. Earlier theoretical works argued that such critical points are potentially unstable, if the Fermi surface at the hot spots is not sufficiently flat. Here we perform a controlled, perturbative renormalization-group analysis and find a stable fixed point corresponding to a continuous quantum phase transition, which exhibits a strong dynamical nesting of the Fermi surface at the hot spots. We derive scaling forms of correlation functions at the critical point and discuss potential implications for experiments with transition-metal dichalcogenides and rare-earth tellurides.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.195102

Accidental Contamination of Substrates and Polymer Films by Organic Quantum Emitters

A. Neumann, J. Lindlau, S. Thomas, T. Basche, A. Hoegele

Nano Letters 19 (5), 3207-3213 (2019).

Show Abstract

We report the observation of ubiquitous contamination of dielectric substrates and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices by organic molecules with optical transitions in the visible spectral range. Contamination sites of individual solvent-related fluorophores in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) constitute fluorescence hotspots with quantum emission statistics and quantum yields approaching 30% at cryogenic temperatures. Our findings not only resolve prevalent puzzles in the assignment of spectral features to various nanoemitters on bare dielectric substrates or in polymer matrices but also identify the means for the simple and cost-efficient realization of single-photon sources in the visible spectral range.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00712

Message Transmission Over Classical Quantum Channels With a Jammer With Side Information: Message Transmission Capacity and Resources

H. Boche, M. Cai, N. Cai.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 65 (5), 2922 - 2943 (2019).

Show Abstract

In this paper, a new model for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum channels is proposed. In this model, a jammer has side information. The communication scenario in which a jammer can select only classical inputs as a jamming sequence is considered in the first part of the paper. This situation corresponds to the standard model of arbitrarily varying classical-quantum channels. Two scenarios are considered. In the first scenario, the jammer knows the channel input, while in the second scenario the jammer knows both the channel input and the message. The transmitter and receiver share a secret random key with a vanishing key rate. The capacity for both average and maximum error criteria for both scenarios is determined in this paper. A strong converse is also proved. It is shown that all these corresponding capacities are equal, which means that additionally revealing the message to the jammer does not change the capacity. The communication scenario with a fully quantum jammer is considered in the second part of the paper. A single letter characterization for the capacity with secret random key as assistance for both average and maximum error criteria is derived in the paper.

DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2018.2878209

Eigenstate thermalization and quantum chaos in the Holstein polaron model

D. Jansen, J. Stolpp, L. Vidmar, and F. Heidrich-Meisner.

Physical Review B 99, 155130 (2019).

Show Abstract

The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) is a successful theory that provides sufficient criteria for ergodicity in quantum many-body systems. Most studies were carried out for Hamiltonians relevant for ultracold quantum gases and single-component systems of spins, fermions, or bosons. The paradigmatic example for thermalization in solid-state physics are phonons serving as a bath for electrons. This situation is often viewed from an open-quantum-system perspective. Here, we ask whether a minimal microscopic model for electron-phonon coupling is quantum chaotic and whether it obeys ETH, if viewed as a closed quantum system. Using exact diagonalization, we address this question in the framework of the Holstein polaron model. Even though the model describes only a single itinerant electron, whose coupling to dispersionless phonons is the only integrability-breaking term, we find that the spectral statistics and the structure of Hamiltonian eigenstates exhibit essential properties of the corresponding random-matrix ensemble. Moreover, we verify the ETH ansatz both for diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of typical phonon and electron observables, and show that the ratio of their variances equals the value predicted from random-matrix theory.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.155130

Quantized Conductance in Topological Insulators Revealed by the Shockley-Ramo Theorem

P. Seifert, M. Kundinger, G. Shi, X.Y. He, K.H. Wu, Y.Q. Li, A. Holleitner, C. Kastl

Physical Review Letters 122 (14), 146804 (2019).

Show Abstract

Crystals with symmetry-protected topological order, such as topological insulators, promise coherent spin and charge transport phenomena even in the presence of disorder at room temperature. We demonstrate how to image and read out the local conductance of helical surface modes in the prototypical topological insulators Bi2Se3 and BiSbTe3. We apply the so-called Shockley-Ramo theorem to design an optoelectronic probe circuit for the gapless surface states, and we find a well-defined conductance quantization at le(2)/h within the experimental error without any external magnetic field. The unprecedented response is a clear signature of local spin-polarized transport, and it can be switched on and off via an electrostatic field effect. The macroscopic, global readout scheme is based on an electrostatic coupling from the local excitation spot to the readout electrodes, and it does not require coherent transport between electrodes, in contrast to the conventional Landauer-Biittiker description. It provides a generalizable platform for studying further nontrivial gapless systems such as Weyl semimetals and quantum spin-Hall insulators.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.146804

Two-temperature scales in the triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet

L. Chen, D.W. Qu, B.B. Chen, S.S. Gong, J. von Delft, A. Weichselbaum, W. Li

Physical Review B 99 (14), 140404 (2019).

Show Abstract

The anomalous thermodynamic properties of the paradigmatic frustrated spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet (TLH) has remained an open topic of research over decades, both experimentally and theoretically. Here, we further the theoretical understanding based on the recently developed, powerful exponential tensor renormalization group method on cylinders and stripes in a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) setup, as well as a tensor product operator approach directly in 2D. The observed thermal properties of the TLH are in excellent agreement with two recent experimental measurements on the virtually ideal TLH material Ba8CoNb6O24. Remarkably, our numerical simulations reveal two crossover temperature scales, at T-l/J similar to 0.20 and T-h/J similar to 0.55, with J the Heisenberg exchange coupling, which are also confirmed by a more careful inspection of the experimental data. We propose that in the intermediate regime between the low-temperature scale T-l and the higher one T-h, the "rotonlike" excitations are activated with a strong chiral component and a large contribution to thermal entropies. Bearing remarkable resemblance to the renowned roton thermodynamics in liquid helium, these gapped excitations suppress the incipient 120 degrees order that emerges for temperatures below T-l.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.140404

Resonance Fluorescence of GaAs Quantum Dots with Near-Unity Photon Indistinguishability

E. Scholl, L. Hanschke, L. Schweickert, K.D. Zeuner, M. Reindl, S.F.C. da Silva, T. Lettner, R. Trotta, J.J. Finley, K. Muller, A. Rastelli, V. Zwiller, K.D. Jons

Nano Letters 19 (4), 2404-2410 (2019).

Show Abstract

Photonic quantum technologies call for scalable quantum light sources that can be integrated, while providing the end user with single and entangled photons on demand. One promising candidate is strain free GaAs/A1GaAs quantum dots obtained by aluminum droplet etching. Such quantum dots exhibit ultra low multi-photon probability and an unprecedented degree of photon pair entanglement. However, different to commonly studied InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots obtained by the Stranski-Krastanow mode, photons with a near-unity indistinguishability from these quantum emitters have proven to be elusive so far. Here, we show on-demand generation of near-unity indistinguishable photons from these quantum emitters by exploring pulsed resonance fluorescence. Given the short intrinsic lifetime of excitons and trions confined in the GaAs quantum dots, we show single photon indistinguishability with a raw visibility of V-raw = (95.0(-6.1)(+5.0))%, without the need for Purcell enhancement. Our results represent a milestone in the advance of GaAs quantum dots by demonstrating the final missing property standing in the way of using these emitters as a key component in quantum communication applications, e.g., as quantum light sources for quantum repeater architectures.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b05132

Time-dependent study of disordered models with infinite projected entangled pair states

C. Hubig, I. Cirac.

SciPost Physics 6, 031 (2019).

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Infinite projected entangled pair states (iPEPS), the tensor network ansatz for two-dimensional systems in the thermodynamic limit, already provide excellent results on ground-state quantities using either imaginary-time evolution or variational optimisation. Here, we show (i) the feasibility of real-time evolution in iPEPS to simulate the dynamics of an infinite system after a global quench and (ii) the application of disorder-averaging to obtain translationally invariant systems in the presence of disorder. To illustrate the approach, we study the short-time dynamics of the square lattice Heisenberg model in the presence of a bi-valued disorder field.

DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.6.3.031

Learning multiple order parameters with interpretable machines

K. Liu, J. Greitemann, and L. Pollet.

Physical Review B 99, 104410 (2019).

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Machine-learning techniques are evolving into a subsidiary tool for studying phase transitions in many-body systems. However, most studies are tied to situations involving only one phase transition and one order parameter. Systems that accommodate multiple phases of coexisting and competing orders, which are common in condensed matter physics, remain largely unexplored from a machine-learning perspective. In this paper, we investigate multiclassification of phases using support vector machines (SVMs) and apply a recently introduced kernel method for detecting hidden spin and orbital orders to learn multiple phases and their analytical order parameters. Our focus is on multipolar orders and their tensorial order parameters whose identification is difficult with traditional methods. The importance of interpretability is emphasized for physical applications of multiclassification. Furthermore, we discuss an intrinsic parameter of SVM, the bias, which allows for a special interpretation in the classification of phases, and its utility in diagnosing the existence of phase transitions. We show that it can be exploited as an efficient way to explore the topology of unknown phase diagrams where the supervision is entirely delegated to the machine.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.104410

Simultaneous transmission of classical and quantum information under channel uncertainty and jamming attacks

H. Boche, G. Janssen, S. Saeedinaeeni.

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60, 022204 (2019).

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We derive universal codes for simultaneous transmission of classical messages and entanglement through quantum channels, possibly under the attack of a malignant third party. These codes are robust to different kinds of channel uncertainties. To construct such universal codes, we invoke and generalize the properties of random codes for classical and quantum message transmission through quantum channels. We show these codes to be optimal by giving a multi-letter characterization of regions corresponding to capacity of compound quantum channels for simultaneously transmitting and generating entanglement with classical messages. In addition, we give dichotomy statements in which we characterize the capacity of arbitrarily varying quantum channels for simultaneous transmission of classical messages and entanglement. These include cases where the malignant jammer present in the arbitrarily varying channel model is classical (chooses channel states of the product form) and fully quantum (is capable of general attacks not necessarily of the product form).

10.1063/1.5078430

Interaction quench and thermalization in a one-dimensional topological Kondo insulator

I. Hagymási, C. Hubig, and U. Schollwöck

Physical Review B 99, 075145 (2019).

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We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a one-dimensional topological Kondo insulator, modelled by a p-wave Anderson lattice model, following a quantum quench of the on-site interaction strength. Our goal is to examine how the quench influences the topological properties of the system, and therefore our main focus is the time evolution of the string order parameter, entanglement spectrum, and the topologically protected edge states. We point out that postquench local observables can be well captured by a thermal ensemble up to a certain interaction strength. Our results demonstrate that the topological properties after the interaction quench are preserved. Though the absolute value of the string order parameter decays in time, the analysis of the entanglement spectrum, Loschmidt echo and the edge states indicates the robustness of the topological properties in the time-evolved state. These predictions could be directly tested in state-of-the-art cold-atom experiments.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.075145

Tuning the Frohlich exciton-phonon scattering in monolayer MoS2

B. Miller, J. Lindlau, M. Bommert, A. Neumann, H. Yamaguchi, A. Holleitner, A. Hoegele, U. Wurstbauer

Nature Communications 10, 807 (2019).

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Charge carriers in semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides possess a valley degree of freedom that allows for optoelectronic applications based on the momentum of excitons. At elevated temperatures, scattering by phonons limits valley polarization, making a detailed knowledge about strength and nature of the interaction of excitons with phonons essential. In this work, we directly access exciton-phonon coupling in charge tunable single layer MoS2 devices by polarization resolved Raman spectroscopy. We observe a strong defect mediated coupling between the long-range oscillating electric field induced by the longitudinal optical phonon in the dipolar medium and the exciton. This so-called Frohlich exciton phonon interaction is suppressed by doping. The suppression correlates with a distinct increase of the degree of valley polarization up to 20% even at elevated temperatures of 220 K. Our result demonstrates a promising strategy to increase the degree of valley polarization towards room temperature valleytronic applications.

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08764-3

Probing hidden spin order with interpretable machine learning

J. Greitemann, K. Liu, and L. Pollet.

Phyical Review B 99, 060404(R) (2019).

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The search of unconventional magnetic and nonmagnetic states is a major topic in the study of frustrated magnetism. Canonical examples of those states include various spin liquids and spin nematics. However, discerning their existence and the correct characterization is usually challenging. Here we introduce a machine-learning protocol that can identify general nematic order and their order parameter from seemingly featureless spin configurations, thus providing comprehensive insight on the presence or absence of hidden orders. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method by extracting the analytical form of nematic order parameter tensors up to rank 6. This may prove useful in the search for novel spin states and for ruling out spurious spin liquid candidates.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.060404

Toward femtosecond electronics up to 10 THz

N. Fernandez, P. Zimmermann, P. Zechmann, M. Worle, R. Kienberger, A.W. Holleitner

Ultrafast Phenomena and Nanophotonics XXIII 10916, 109160R (2019).

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We numerically compute the effective diffraction index and attenuation of coplanar stripline circuits with microscale lateral dimensions on various substrates including sapphire, GaN, silica glass, and diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. We show how to include dielectric, radiative and ohmic losses to describe the pulse propagation in the striplines to allow femtosecond on-chip electronics with frequency components up to 10 THz.

DOI: 10.1117/12.2511668

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