Learning multiple order parameters with interpretable machines
K. Liu, J. Greitemann, and L. Pollet.
Physical Review B 99, 104410 (2019).
Machine-learning techniques are evolving into a subsidiary tool for studying phase transitions in many-body systems. However, most studies are tied to situations involving only one phase transition and one order parameter. Systems that accommodate multiple phases of coexisting and competing orders, which are common in condensed matter physics, remain largely unexplored from a machine-learning perspective. In this paper, we investigate multiclassification of phases using support vector machines (SVMs) and apply a recently introduced kernel method for detecting hidden spin and orbital orders to learn multiple phases and their analytical order parameters. Our focus is on multipolar orders and their tensorial order parameters whose identification is difficult with traditional methods. The importance of interpretability is emphasized for physical applications of multiclassification. Furthermore, we discuss an intrinsic parameter of SVM, the bias, which allows for a special interpretation in the classification of phases, and its utility in diagnosing the existence of phase transitions. We show that it can be exploited as an efficient way to explore the topology of unknown phase diagrams where the supervision is entirely delegated to the machine.
Probing hidden spin order with interpretable machine learning
J. Greitemann, K. Liu, and L. Pollet.
Phyical Review B 99, 060404(R) (2019).
The search of unconventional magnetic and nonmagnetic states is a major topic in the study of frustrated magnetism. Canonical examples of those states include various spin liquids and spin nematics. However, discerning their existence and the correct characterization is usually challenging. Here we introduce a machine-learning protocol that can identify general nematic order and their order parameter from seemingly featureless spin configurations, thus providing comprehensive insight on the presence or absence of hidden orders. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method by extracting the analytical form of nematic order parameter tensors up to rank 6. This may prove useful in the search for novel spin states and for ruling out spurious spin liquid candidates.