Efficient optomechanical mode-shape mapping of micromechanical devices
D. Hoch, K.-J. Haas, L. Moller, T. Sommer, P. Soubelet, J. Finley, M. Poot
Micromachines 12, 880 (2021).
Visualizing eigenmodes is crucial in understanding the behavior of state-of-the-art micromechanical devices. We demonstrate a method to optically map multiple modes of mechanical structures simultaneously. The fast and robust method, based on a modified phase-lock loop, is demonstrated on a silicon nitride membrane and shown to outperform three alternative approaches. Line traces and two-dimensional maps of different modes are acquired. The high quality data enables us to determine the weights of individual contributions in superpositions of degenerate modes.
Manganese doping for enhanced magnetic brightening and circular polarization control of dark excitons in paramagnetic layered hybrid metal-halide perovskites
T. Neumann, S. Feldmann, P. Moser, A. Delhomme, J. Zerhoch, T. van de Goor, S. Wang, M. Dyksik, T. Winkler, J.J. Finley, P. Plochocka, M.S. Brandt, C. Faugeras, A.V. Stier, F. Deschler
Nature Communications 12, 3489 (2021).
Materials combining semiconductor functionalities with spin control are desired for the advancement of quantum technologies. Here, we study the magneto-optical properties of novel paramagnetic Ruddlesden-Popper hybrid perovskites Mn:(PEA)2PbI4 (PEA = phenethylammonium) and report magnetically brightened excitonic luminescence with strong circular polarization from the interaction with isolated Mn2+ ions. Using a combination of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, magneto-absorption and transient optical spectroscopy, we find that a dark exciton population is brightened by state mixing with the bright excitons in the presence of a magnetic field. Unexpectedly, the circular polarization of the dark exciton luminescence follows the Brillouin-shaped magnetization with a saturation polarization of 13% at 4 K and 6 T. From high-field transient magneto-luminescence we attribute our observations to spin-dependent exciton dynamics at early times after excitation, with first indications for a Mn-mediated spin-flip process. Our findings demonstrate manganese doping as a powerful approach to control excitonic spin physics in Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites, which will stimulate research on this highly tuneable material platform with promise for tailored interactions between magnetic moments and excitonic states.
Optomechanical wave mixing by a single quantum dot
M. Weiß, D. Wigger, M. Nägele, K. Müller, J.J. Finley, T. Kuhn, P. Machnikowski, H.J. Krenner
Optica 8 (3), 291-300 (2021).
Wave mixing is an archetypical phenomenon in bosonic systems. In optomechanics, the bidirectional conversion between electromagnetic waves or photons at optical frequencies and elastic waves or phonons at radio frequencies is building on precisely this fundamental principle. Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) provide a versatile interconnect on a chip and thus enable the optomechanical control of remote systems. Here we report on the coherent nonlinear three-wave mixing between the coherent fields of two radio frequency SAWs and optical laser photons via the dipole transition of a single quantum dot exciton. In the resolved sideband regime, we demonstrate fundamental acoustic analogues of sum and difference frequency generation between the two SAWs and employ phase matching to deterministically enhance or suppress individual sidebands. This transfer between the acoustic and optical domains is described by theory that fully takes into account direct and virtual multiphonon processes. Finally, we show that the precision of the wave mixing is limited by the frequency accuracy of modern radio frequency electronics.
3D Deep Learning Enables Accurate Layer Mapping of 2D Materials
X.C. Dong, H.W. Li, Z.T. Jiang, T. Grunleitner, I. Gueler, J. Dong, K. Wang, M.H. Koehler, M. Jakobi, B.H. Menze, A.K. Yetisen, I.D. Sharp, A.V. Stier, J.J. Finley, A.W. Koch
ACS Nano 15 (2), 3139-3151 (2021).
Layered, two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising for next-generation photonics devices. Typically, the thickness of mechanically cleaved flakes and chemical vapor deposited thin films is distributed randomly over a large area, where accurate identification of atomic layer numbers is time-consuming. Hyperspectral imaging microscopy yields spectral information that can be used to distinguish the spectral differences of varying thickness specimens. However, its spatial resolution is relatively low due to the spectral imaging nature. In this work, we present a 3D deep learning solution called DALM (deep-learning-enabled atomic layer mapping) to merge hyperspectral reflection images (high spectral resolution) and RGB images (high spatial resolution) for the identification and segmentation of MoS2 flakes with mono-, bi-, tri-, and multilayer thicknesses. DALM is trained on a small set of labeled images, automatically predicts layer distributions and segments individual layers with high accuracy, and shows robustness to illumination and contrast variations. Further, we show its advantageous performance over the state-of-the-art model that is solely based on RGB microscope images. This AI-supported technique with high speed, spatial resolution, and accuracy allows for reliable computer-aided identification of atomically thin materials.
High-resolution spectroscopy of a quantum dot driven bichromatically by two strong coherent fields
C. Gustin, L. Hanschke, K. Boos, J.R.A. Müller, M. Kremser, J. J. Finley, S. Hughes, K. Müller
Physical Review Research 3, 13044 (2021).
We present spectroscopic experiments and theory of a quantum dot driven bichromatically by two strong coherent lasers. In particular, we explore the regime where the drive strengths are substantial enough to merit a general nonperturbative analysis, resulting in a rich higher-order Floquet dressed-state energy structure. We show high-resolution spectroscopy measurements with a variety of laser detunings performed on a single InGaAs quantum dot, with the resulting features well explained with a time-dependent quantum master equation and Floquet analysis. Notably, driving the quantum dot resonance and one of the subsequent Mollow triplet sidepeaks, we observe the disappearance and subsequent reappearance of the central transition and transition resonant with detuned laser at high detuned-laser pump strengths and additional higher-order effects, e.g., emission triplets at higher harmonics and signatures of higher-order Floquet states. For a similar excitation condition but with an off-resonant primary laser, we observe similar spectral features but with an enhanced inherent spectral asymmetry.
Origin of Antibunching in Resonance Fluorescence
L. Hanschke, L. Schweickert, J.C.L. Carreno, E. Scholl, K.D. Zeuner, T. Lettner, E.Z. Casalengua, M. Reindl, S.F.C. da Silva, R. Trotta, J.J. Finley, A. Rastelli, E. del Valle, F.P. Laussy, V. Zwiller, K. Muller, K.D. Jons
Physical Review Letters 125 (17), 170402 (2020).
Resonance fluorescence has played a major role in quantum optics with predictions and later experimental confirmation of nonclassical features of its emitted light such as antibunching or squeezing. In the Rayleigh regime where most of the light originates from the scattering of photons with subnatural linewidth, antibunching would appear to coexist with sharp spectral lines. Here, we demonstrate that this simultaneous observation of subnatural linewidth and antibunching is not possible with simple resonant excitation. Using an epitaxial quantum dot for the two-level system, we independently confirm the single-photon character and subnatural linewidth by demonstrating antibunching in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss type setup and using high-resolution spectroscopy, respectively. However, when filtering the coherently scattered photons with filter bandwidths on the order of the homogeneous linewidth of the excited state of the two-level system, the antibunching dip vanishes in the correlation measurement. Our observation is explained by antibunching originating from photon-interferences between the coherent scattering and a weak incoherent signal in a skewed squeezed state. This prefigures schemes to achieve simultaneous subnatural linewidth and antibunched emission.
Site-selectively generated photon emitters in monolayer MoS2 via local helium ion irradiation
J. Klein, M. Lorke, M. Florian, F. Sigger, J. Wierzbowski, J. Cerne, K. Müller, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, U. Wurstbauer, M. Kaniber, M. Knap, R. Schmidt, J. Finley, A. Holleitner.
Nature Communications 10, Article number: 2755 (2019).
Quantum light sources in solid-state systems are of major interest as a basic ingredient for integrated quantum photonic technologies. The ability to tailor quantum emitters via site-selective defect engineering is essential for realizing scalable architectures. However, a major difficulty is that defects need to be controllably positioned within the material. Here, we overcome this challenge by controllably irradiating monolayer MoS2 using a sub-nm focused helium ion beam to deterministically create defects. Subsequent encapsulation of the ion exposed MoS2 flake with high-quality hBN reveals spectrally narrow emission lines that produce photons in the visible spectral range. Based on ab-initio calculations we interpret these emission lines as stemming from the recombination of highly localized electron–hole complexes at defect states generated by the local helium ion exposure. Our approach to deterministically write optically active defect states in a single transition metal dichalcogenide layer provides a platform for realizing exotic many-body systems, including coupled single-photon sources and interacting exciton lattices that may allow the exploration of Hubbard physics.
Breakdown of corner states and carrier localization by monolayer fluctuations in a radial nanowire quantum wells
M. M. Sonner, A. Sitek, L. Janker, D. Rudolph, D. Ruhstorfer, M. Döblinger, A. Manolescu, G. Abstreiter, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, G. Koblmueller, H. J. Krenner
Nano Lett. 19 (5), 3336-3343 (2019).
We report a comprehensive study of the impact of the structural properties in radial GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowire-quantum well heterostructures on the optical recombination dynamics and electrical transport properties, emphasizing particularly the role of the commonly observed variations of the quantum well thickness at different facets. Typical thickness fluctuations of the radial quantum well observed by transmission electron microscopy lead to pronounced localization. Our optical data exhibit clear spectral shifts and a multipeak structure of the emission for such asymmetric ring structures resulting from spatially separated, yet interconnected quantum well systems. Charge carrier dynamics induced by a surface acoustic wave are resolved and prove efficient carrier exchange on native, subnanosecond time scales within the heterostructure. Experimental findings are corroborated by theoretical modeling, which unambiguously show that electrons and holes localize on facets where the quantum well is the thickest and that even minute deviations of the perfect hexagonal shape strongly perturb the commonly assumed 6-fold symmetric ground state.
Resonance Fluorescence of GaAs Quantum Dots with Near-Unity Photon Indistinguishability
E. Scholl, L. Hanschke, L. Schweickert, K.D. Zeuner, M. Reindl, S.F.C. da Silva, T. Lettner, R. Trotta, J.J. Finley, K. Müller, A. Rastelli, V. Zwiller, K.D. Jons
Nano Letters 19 (4), 2404-2410 (2019).
Photonic quantum technologies call for scalable quantum light sources that can be integrated, while providing the end user with single and entangled photons on demand. One promising candidate is strain free GaAs/A1GaAs quantum dots obtained by aluminum droplet etching. Such quantum dots exhibit ultra low multi-photon probability and an unprecedented degree of photon pair entanglement. However, different to commonly studied InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots obtained by the Stranski-Krastanow mode, photons with a near-unity indistinguishability from these quantum emitters have proven to be elusive so far. Here, we show on-demand generation of near-unity indistinguishable photons from these quantum emitters by exploring pulsed resonance fluorescence. Given the short intrinsic lifetime of excitons and trions confined in the GaAs quantum dots, we show single photon indistinguishability with a raw visibility of V-raw = (95.0(-6.1)(+5.0))%, without the need for Purcell enhancement. Our results represent a milestone in the advance of GaAs quantum dots by demonstrating the final missing property standing in the way of using these emitters as a key component in quantum communication applications, e.g., as quantum light sources for quantum repeater architectures.