##### A Novel Architecture for Future Classical-Quantum Communication Networks

F. Granelli, R. Bassoli, J. Nötzel, F.H.P. Fitzek, H. Boche, N.L.S. da Fonseca

Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 2022, Hindawi, (2022).

The standardisation of 5G is reaching its end, and the networks have started being deployed. Thus, 6G architecture is under study and design, to define the characteristics and the guidelines for its standardisation. In parallel, communications based on quantum-mechanical principles, named quantum communications, are under design and standardisation, leading to the so-called quantum internet. Nevertheless, these research and standardisation efforts are proceeding in parallel, without any significant interaction. Thus, it is essential to discuss an architecture and the possible protocol stack for classical-quantum communication networks, allowing for an effective integration between quantum and classical networks. The main scope of this paper is to provide a joint architecture for quantum-classical communication networks, considering the very recent advancements in the architectural design of 6G and the quantum internet, also defining guidelines and characteristics, which can be helpful for the ongoing standardisation efforts. For this purpose, the article discusses some of the existing main standardisation processes in classical communications and proposed protocol stacks for quantum communications. This aims at highlighting the potential points of connection and the differences that may imply future incompatible developments. The standardisation efforts on the quantum internet cannot overlook the experience gained and the existing standardisation, allowing the creation of frameworks in the classical communication context.

##### Integrating Quantum Simulation for Quantum-Enhanced Classical Network Emulation

S. DiAdamo, J. Nötzel, S. Sekavcnik, R. Bassoli, R. Ferrara, C. Deppe, F.H.P. Fitzek, H. Boche

IEEE Communications Letters 35 (12), 3922 - 3926 (2021).

We describe a method of investigating the near-term potential of quantum communication technology for communication networks from the perspective of current networks. For this, we integrate an instance of the quantum network simulator QuNetSim at the link layer into the communication network emulator ComNetsEmu. This novel augmented version of ComNetsEmu is thereby enabled to run arbitrary quantum protocols between any directly connected pair of network hosts. To give an example of the proposed method, we implement the link layer method of generating and storing entanglement while idle, to accelerate data transmission at later times using superdense coding.

##### Compound Channel Capacities under Energy Constraints and Application

A. Cacioppo, J. Nötzel, M. Rosati

IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) 640-645 (2021).

Compound channel models offer a simple and straightforward way of analyzing the stability of decoder design under model variations. With this work we provide a coding theorem for a large class of practically relevant compound channel models. We give explicit formulas for the cases of the Gaussian classical-quantum compound channels with unknown noise, unknown phase and unknown attenuation. We show analytically how the classical compound channel capacity formula motivates nontrivial choices of the displacement parameter of the Kennedy receiver. Our work demonstrates the value of the compound channel model as a method for the design of receivers in quantum communication.

##### Entanglement-Assisted Data Transmission as an Enabling Technology: A Link-Layer Perspective

J. Nötzel, S. DiAdamo,

IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) 1955-1960 (2020).

Quantum entanglement as a resource has repeatedly proven to add performance improvements for various tasks in communication and computing, yet no current application justifies a wide spread use of entanglement as a commodity in communication systems. In this work, we detail how the addition of an entanglement storage system at the end-points of a communication link integrated seamlessly into the current Internet can benefit that link's capabilities via a protocol implementing the simple rule to "create entanglement when idle", and use entanglement-assisted communication whenever possible. The benefits are shown with regards to throughput, packet drop-rate, and average packet processing time. The modelling is done in an information-theoretic style, thereby establishing a connecting from information-theoretic capacities to statistical network analysis.

##### QuNetSim: A Software Framework for Quantum Networks

S. Diadamo, J. Nötzel, B. Zanger, M.M. Beşe

IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering 2 , 1-12 (2021).

As quantum network technologies develop, the need for teaching and engineering tools such as simulators and emulators rises. QuNetSim addresses this need. QuNetSim is a Python software framework that delivers an easy-to-use interface for simulating quantum networks at the network layer, which can be extended at little effort of the user to implement the corresponding link layer protocols. The goal of QuNetSim is to make it easier to investigate and test quantum networking protocols over various quantum network configurations and parameters. The framework incorporates many known quantum network protocols so that users can quickly build simulations using a quantum-networking toolbox in a few lines of code and so that beginners can easily learn to implement their own quantum networking protocols. Unlike most current tools, QuNetSim simulates with real time and is, therefore, well suited to control laboratory hardware. Here, we present a software design overview of QuNetSim and demonstrate examples of protocols implemented with it. We describe ongoing work, which uses QuNetSim as a library, and describe possible future directions for the development of QuNetSim.

##### Entanglement-Enhanced Communication Networks

J. Nötzel, S. DiAdamo

IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE) 242-248 (2020).

Building quantum networks ultimately requires strong use cases. As today's design and use of the Internet solely rests on the interconnection of classical computing devices, the development of hardware should take this dependence on an existing market into account. One might think quantum secure communication would be such a use case, but the entire design of the current Internet is built on the end-to-end argument and may reject the idea of implementing security as a physical layer protocol. On the other hand, higher data rates and reduced latency have been successfully used as key arguments for the conception of new communication standards. We thus argue that exactly these two figures of merit should be used again. We define two new initial stages of development of the quantum Internet, where in the first phase entanglement is only generated and used between network nodes, and in second phase entanglement swapping and thus distribution of entanglement over increasing distances becomes possible. In both phases, we show by simulation how the available new protocols increase the network capacity. Interestingly, following this envisioned approach can serve the needs of current market participants while paving the road for fully quantum applications in the future.

##### Entanglement-Enabled Communication for the Internet of Things

J. Nötzel, S. DiAdamo

International Conference on Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems (CITS) 1-6 (2020).

We consider an N-user multiple-access channel (MAC) with a varying channel state. The senders receive partial state information, but cannot communicate amongst reach other. This particular channels rate region vanishes asymptotically with a growing number of users in the sense of an exponential bound on the sum rate. However, when pre-established quantum entanglement is shared between the senders, the sum rate stays at a constant positive number. Thus a beneficial impact of entanglement-modulated coding for multi-access scenarios where many senders attempt to reach one receiver is demonstrated, a scenario with an increased likelihood in the internet of things.

##### Entanglement-Enabled Communication

J. Nötzel

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Information Theory 1, 401-415 (2020).

We introduce and analyse a multiple-access channel with two senders and one receiver, in the presence of i.i.d. noise coming from the environment. Partial side information about the environmental states allows the senders to modulate their signals accordingly. An adversarial jammer with its own access to information on environmental states and the modulation signals can jam a fraction of the transmissions. Our results show that for many choices of the system parameters, entanglement shared between the two senders allows them to communicate at non-zero rates with the receiver, while for the same parameters the system forbids any communication without entanglement-assistance, even if the senders have access to common randomness (local correlations). A simplified model displaying a similar behaviour but with a compound channel instead of a jammer is outlined to introduce basic aspects of the modeling. We complement these results by demonstrating that there even exist model parameters for which entanglement-assisted communication is no longer possible, but a hypothetical use of nonlocal no-signalling correlations between Alice and Bob could enable them to communicate to Charlie again.

##### Secret message transmission over quantum channels under adversarial quantum noise: Secrecy capacity and super-activation

H. Boche, M. Cai, J. Nötzel, C. Deppe.

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60, 062202-1 to 062202-39 (2019).

We determine the secrecy capacities of arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). Both secrecy capacities with average error probability and with maximal error probability are derived. Both derivations are based on one common code construction. The code we construct fulfills a stringent secrecy requirement, which is called the strong code concept. As an application of our result for secret message transmission over AVQCs, we determine when the secrecy capacity is a continuous function of the system parameters and completely characterize its discontinuity points both for average error criterion and for maximal error criterion. Furthermore, we prove the phenomenon “superactivation” for secrecy capacities of arbitrarily varying quantum channels, i.e., two quantum channels both with zero secrecy capacity, which, if used together, allow secure transmission with positive capacity. We give therewith an answer to the question “When is the secrecy capacity a continuous function of the system parameters?,” which has been listed as an open problem in quantum information problem page of the Institut für Theoretische Physik (ITP) Hannover. We also discuss the relations between the entanglement distillation capacity, the entanglement generating capacity, and the strong subspace transmission capacity for AVQCs. Ahlswede et al. made in 2013 the conjecture that the entanglement generating capacity of an AVQC is equal to its entanglement generating capacity under shared randomness assisted quantum coding. We demonstrate that the validity of this conjecture implies that the entanglement generating capacity, the entanglement distillation capacity, and the strong subspace transmission capacity of an AVQC are continuous functions of the system parameters. Consequently, under the premise of this conjecture, the secrecy capacities of an AVQC differ significantly from the general quantum capacities.