##### Primordial black holes from confinement

G. Dvali, F. Kühnel, M. Zantedeschi

Physical Review D 104, 123507 (2021).

A mechanism for the formation of primordial black holes is proposed. Here, heavy quarks of a confining gauge theory produced by de Sitter fluctuations are pushed apart by inflation and get confined after horizon reentry. The large amount of energy stored in the color flux tubes connecting the quark pair leads to black-hole formation. These are much lighter and can be of higher spin than those produced by standard collapse of horizon-size inflationary overdensities. Other difficulties exhibited by such mechanisms are also avoided. Phenomenological features of the new mechanism are discussed as well as accounting for both the entirety of the dark matter and the supermassive black holes in the galactic centers. Under proper conditions, the mechanism can be realized in a generic confinement theory, including ordinary QCD. We discuss a possible string-theoretic realization via D-branes. Interestingly, for conservative values of the string scale, the produced gravity waves are within the range of recent NANOGrav data. Simple generalizations of the mechanism allow for the existence of a significant scalar component of gravity waves with distinct observational signatures.

##### Entropy bound and unitarity of scattering amplitudes

G. Dvali

JHEP 3, 126 (2021).

We establish that unitarity of scattering amplitudes imposes universal entropy bounds. The maximal entropy of a self-sustained quantum field object of radius R is equal to its surface area and at the same time to the inverse running coupling α evaluated at the scale R. The saturation of these entropy bounds is in one-to-one correspondence with the non-perturbative saturation of unitarity by 2 → N particle scattering amplitudes at the point of optimal truncation. These bounds are more stringent than Bekenstein’s bound and in a consistent theory all three get saturated simultaneously. This is true for all known entropy-saturating objects such as solitons, instantons, baryons, oscillons, black holes or simply lumps of classical fields. We refer to these collectively as saturons and show that in renormalizable theories they behave in all other respects like black holes. Finally, it is argued that the confinement in SU(N) gauge theory can be understood as a direct consequence of the entropy bounds and unitarity.

##### S-Matrix and Anomaly of de Sitter

G. Dvali

Symmetry 13, 3 (2020).

S-matrix formulation of gravity excludes de Sitter vacua. In particular, this is organic to string theory. The S-matrix constraint is enforced by an anomalous quantum break-time proportional to the inverse values of gravitational and/or string couplings. Due to this, de Sitter can satisfy the conditions for a valid vacuum only at the expense of trivializing the graviton and closed-string S-matrices. At non-zero gravitational and string couplings, de Sitter is deformed by corpuscular 1/N effects, similarly to Witten–Veneziano mechanism in QCD with N colors. In this picture, an S-matrix formulation of Einstein gravity, such as string theory, nullifies an outstanding cosmological puzzle. We discuss possible observational signatures which are especially interesting in theories with a large number of particle species. Species can enhance the primordial quantum imprints to potentially observable level even if the standard inflaton fluctuations are negligible.

##### Spontaneous conformal symmetry breaking in fishnet CFT

G. Karananas, V. Kazakov, M. Shaposhnikov

Phys. Lett. B 811, 135922 (2020).

Quantum field theories with exact but spontaneously broken conformal invariance have an intriguing feature: their vacuum energy (cosmological constant) is equal to zero. Up to now, the only known ultraviolet complete theories where conformal symmetry can be spontaneously broken were associated with supersymmetry (SUSY), with the most prominent example being the =4 SUSY Yang-Mills. In this Letter we show that the recently proposed conformal “fishnet” theory supports at the classical level a rich set of flat directions (moduli) along which conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. We demonstrate that, at least perturbatively, some of these vacua survive in the full quantum theory (in the planar limit, at the leading order of expansion) without any fine tuning. The vacuum energy is equal to zero along these flat directions, providing the first non-SUSY example of a four-dimensional quantum field theory with “natural” breaking of conformal symmetry.

##### Black hole metamorphosis and stabilization by memory burden

G. Dvali, L. Eisemann, M. Michel, S. Zell

Phys. Rev. D 102, 103523 (2020).

Systems of enhanced memory capacity are subjected to a universal effect of memory burden, which suppresses their decay. In this paper, we study a prototype model to show that memory burden can be overcome by rewriting stored quantum information from one set of degrees of freedom to another one. However, due to a suppressed rate of rewriting, the evolution becomes extremely slow compared to the initial stage. Applied to black holes, this predicts a metamorphosis, including a drastic deviation from Hawking evaporation, at the latest after losing half of the mass. This raises a tantalizing question about the fate of a black hole. As two likely options, it can either become extremely long lived or decay via a new classical instability into gravitational lumps. The first option would open up a new window for small primordial black holes as viable dark matter candidates.

##### Unitarity Entropy Bound: Solitons and Instantons

G. Dvali

Fortsch. Phys. 69, 2000091 (2020).

We show that non-perturbative entities such as solitons and instantons saturate bounds on entropy when the theory saturates unitarity. Simultaneously, the entropy becomes equal to the area of the soliton/instanton. This is strikingly similar to black hole entropy despite absence of gravity. We explain why this similarity is not an accident. We present a formulation that allows to apply the entropy bound to instantons. The new formulation also eliminates apparent violations of the Bekenstein entropy bound by some otherwise-consistent unitary systems. We observe that in QCD, an isolated instanton of fixed size and position violates the entropy bound for strong 't Hooft coupling. At critical 't Hooft coupling the instanton entropy is equal to its area.

##### Compact Dark Matter Objects via N Dark Sectors

G. Dvali, E. Koutsangelas, F. Kühnel

Phys. Rev. D 101, 83533 (2020).

We propose a novel class of compact dark matter objects in theories where the dark matter consists of multiple sectors. We call these objects N-MACHOs. In such theories neither the existence of dark matter species nor their extremely weak coupling to the observable sector represent additional hypotheses but instead are imposed by the solution to the Hierarchy Problem and unitarity. The crucial point is that particles from the same sector have non-trivial interactions but interact only gravitationally otherwise. As a consequence, the pressure that counteracts the gravitational collapse is reduced while the gravitational force remains the same. This results in collapsed structures much lighter and smaller as compared to the ordinary single-sector case. We apply this phenomenon to a dark matter theory that consists of N dilute copies of the Standard Model. The solutions do not rely on an exotic stabilization mechanism, but rather use the same well-understood properties as known stellar structures. This framework also gives rise to new microscopic superheavy structures, for example with mass 108g and size 10−13cm. By confronting the resulting objects with observational constraints, we find that, due to a huge suppression factor entering the mass spectrum, these objects evade the strongest constrained region of the parameter space. Finally, we discuss possible formation scenarios of N-MACHOs. We argue that, due to the efficient dissipation of energy on small scales, high-density regions such as ultra-compact mini-halos could serve as formation sites of N-MACHOs.