##### Accurate NMR Shieldings with σ-Functionals

S. Fauser, V. Drontschenko, C. Ochsenfeld, A. Görling

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 9 (2024).

In recent years, density-functional methods relying on a new type of fifth-rung correlation functionals called sigma-functionals have been introduced. sigma-Functionals are technically closely related to the random phase approximation and require the same computational effort but yield distinctively higher accuracies for reaction and transition state energies of main group chemistry and even outperform double-hybrid functionals for these energies. In this work, we systematically investigate how accurate sigma-functionals can describe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings. It turns out that sigma-functionals yield very accurate NMR shieldings, even though in their optimization, exclusively, energies are employed as reference data and response properties such as NMR shieldings are not involved at all. This shows that sigma-functionals combine universal applicability with accuracy. Indeed, the NMR shieldings from a sigma-functional using input orbitals and eigenvalues from Kohn-Sham calculations with the exchange-correlation functional of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) turned out to be the most accurate ones among the NMR shieldings calculated with various density-functional methods including methods using double-hybrid functionals. That sigma-functionals can be used for calculating both reliable energies and response properties like NMR shieldings characterizes them as all-purpose functionals, which is appealing from an application point of view.

##### Efficient Exploitation of Numerical Quadrature with Distance-Dependent Integral Screening in Explicitly Correlated F12 Theory: Linear Scaling Evaluation of the Most Expensive RI-MP2-F12 Term

L. Urban, H. Laqua, T. H. Thompson, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 20 (9), 3706-3718 (2024).

We present a linear scaling atomic orbital based algorithm for the computation of the most expensive exchange-type RI-MP2-F12 term by employing numerical quadrature in combination with CABS-RI to avoid six-center-three-electron integrals. Furthermore, a robust distance-dependent integral screening scheme, based on integral partition bounds [Thompson, T. H.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 150, 044101], is used to drastically reduce the number of the required three-center-one-electron integrals substantially. The accuracy of our numerical quadrature/CABS-RI approach and the corresponding integral screening is thoroughly assessed for interaction and isomerization energies across a variety of numerical integration grids. Our method outperforms the standard density fitting/CABS-RI approach with errors below 1 mu E-h even for small grid sizes and moderate screening thresholds. The choice of the grid size and screening threshold allows us to tailor our ansatz to a desired accuracy and computational efficiency. We showcase the approach's effectiveness for the chemically relevant system valinomycin, employing a triple-zeta F12 basis set combination (C54H90N6O18, 5757 AO basis functions, 10,266 CABS basis functions, 735,783 grid points). In this context, our ansatz achieves higher accuracy combined with a 135x speedup compared to the classical density fitting based variant, requiring notably less computation time than the corresponding RI-MP2 calculation. Additionally, we demonstrate near-linear scaling through calculations on linear alkanes. We achieved an 817-fold acceleration for C80H162 and an extrapolated 28,765-fold acceleration for C200H402, resulting in a substantially reduced computational time for the latter ― from 229 days to just 11.5 min. Our ansatz may also be adapted to the remaining MP2-F12 terms, which will be the subject of future work.

##### Analytical Second-Order Properties for the Random Phase Approximation: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shieldings

V. Drontschenko, F. H. Bangerter, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 19 (21), 7542-7554 (2023).

A method for the analytical computation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings within the direct random phase approximation (RPA) is presented. As a starting point, we use the RPA ground-state energy expression within the resolution-of-the-identity approximation in the atomic-orbital formalism. As has been shown in a recent benchmark study using numerical second derivatives [Glasbrenner, M. et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2022, 18, 192], RPA based on a Hartree-Fock reference shows accuracies comparable to coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) for NMR chemical shieldings. Together with the much lower computational cost of RPA, it has emerged as an accurate method for the computation of NMR shieldings. Therefore, we aim to extend the applicability of RPA NMR to larger systems by introducing analytical second-order derivatives, making it a viable method for the accurate and efficient computation of NMR chemical shieldings.

##### Efficient Method for the Computation of Frozen-Core Nuclear Gradients within the Random Phase Approximation

V. Drontschenko, D. Graf, H. Laqua, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 14 (2022).

A method for the evaluation of analytical frozen-core gradients within the random phase approximation is presented. We outline an efficient way to evaluate the response of the density of active electrons arising only when introducing the frozen-core approximation and constituting the main difficulty, together with the response of the standard Kohn-Sham density. The general framework allows to extend the outlined procedure to related electron correlation methods in the atomic orbital basis that require the evaluation of density responses, such as second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory or coupled cluster variants. By using Cholesky decomposed densities-which reintroduce the occupied index in the time-determining steps-we are able to achieve speedups of 20-30% (depending on the size of the basis set) by using the frozen-core approximation, which is of similar magnitude as for molecular orbital formulations. We further show that the errors introduced by the frozen-core approximation are practically insignificant for molecular geometries.

##### Accelerating Hybrid Density Functional Theory Molecular Dynamics Simulations by Seminumerical Integration, Resolution-of-the- Identity Approximation, and Graphics Processing Units

H. Laqua, J. C. B. Dietschreit, J. Kussmann, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 18 (10), 6010-6020 (2022).

The computationally very demanding evaluation of the 4-center-2-electron (4c2e) integrals and their respective integral derivatives typically represents the major bottleneck within hybrid Kohn-Sham density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations. Building upon our previous works on seminumerical exact-exchange (sn-LinK) [Laqua, H., Thompsons, T. H., Kussmann, J., Ochsenfeld, C., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2020, 16, 1465] and resolution-of-the-identity Coulomb (RI-J) [Kussmann, J., Laqua, H., Ochsenfeld, C., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2021, 17, 1512], the expensive 4c2e integral evaluation can be avoided entirely, resulting in a highly efficient electronic structure theory method, allowing for fast ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations even with large basis sets. Moreover, we propose to combine the final self-consistent field (SCF) step with the subsequent nuclear forces evaluation, providing the forces at virtually no additional cost after a converged SCF calculation, reducing the total runtime of an AIMD simulation by about another 25%. In addition, multiple independent MD trajectories can be computed concurrently on a single node, leading to a greatly increased utilization of the available hardware-especially when combined with graphics processing unit acceleration-improving the overall throughput by up to another 5 times in this way. With all of those optimizations combined, our proposed method provides nearly 3 orders of magnitude faster execution times than traditional 4c2e integral-based methods. To demonstrate the practical utility of the approach, quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical dynamics simulations on double-stranded DNA were performed, investigating the relative hydrogen bond strength between adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs. In addition, this illustrative application also contains a general accuracy assessment of the introduced approximations (integration grids, resolution-of-the-identity) within AIMD simulations, serving as a protocol on how to apply these new methods to practical problems.

##### Tensor-Hypercontracted MP2 First Derivatives: Runtime and Memory Efficient Computation of Hyperfine Coupling Constants

F. H. Bangerter, M. Glasbrenner, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 13 (2022).

We employ our recently introduced tensor-hyper-contracted (THC) second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method [Bangerter, F. H., Glasbrenner, M., Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2021, 17, 211-221] for the computation of hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs). The implementation leverages the tensor structure of the THC factorized electron repulsion integrals for an efficient formation of the integral-based intermediates. The computational complexity of the most expensive and formally quintic scaling exchange-like contribution is reduced to effectively subquadratic, by making use of the intrinsic, exponentially decaying coupling between tensor indices through screening based on natural blocking. Overall, this yields an effective subquadratic scaling with a low prefactor for the presented THC-based AO-MP2 method for the computation of isotropic HFCCs on DNA fragments with up to 500 atoms and 5000 basis functions. Furthermore, the implementation achieves considerable speedups with up to a factor of roughly 600-1000 compared to previous implementations [Vogler, S., Ludwig, M., Maurer, M., Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2017, 147, 024101] for medium-sized organic radicals, while also significantly reducing storage requirements.

##### Highly Efficient and Accurate Computation of Multiple Orbital Spaces Spanning Fock Matrix Elements on Central and Graphics Processing Units for Application in F12 Theory

L. Urban, H. Laqua, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 11 (2022).

"We employ our recently published highly efficient seminumerical exchange (sn-LinK) [Laqua, H.,. Thompson, T. H.,. Kussmann, J.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2020, 16, 1456-1468] and integral-direct resolution of the identity Coulomb (RI-J) [Kussmann, J.,. Laqua, H.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2021, 17, 1512-1521] methods to significantly accelerate the computation of the demanding multiple orbital spaces spanning Fock matrix elements present in R12/F12 theory on central and graphics processing units. The errors introduced by RI-J and snLinK into the RI-MP2-F12 energy are thoroughly assessed for a variety of basis sets and integration grids. We find that these numerical errors are always below ""chemical accuracy"" (similar to 1 mH) even for the coarsest settings and can easily be reduced below 1 mu H by employing only moderately large integration grids and RI-J basis sets. Since the number of basis functions of the multiple orbital spaces is notably larger compared with conventional Hartree-Fock theory, the efficiency gains from the superior basis scaling of RI-J and sn-LinK (O(N-bas(2)) instead of O(N-bas(4)) for both) are even more significant, with maximum speedup factors of 37 000 for RI-J and 4500 for sn-LinK. In total, the multiple orbital spaces spanning Fock matrix evaluation of the largest tested structure using a triple-zeta F12 basis set (5058 AO basis functions, 9267 CABS basis functions) is accelerated over 1575x using CPUs and over 4155x employing GPUs."

##### Benchmarking the Accuracy of the Direct Random Phase Approximation and sigma-Functionals for NMR Shieldings

M. Glasbrenner, D. Graf, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 18 (1), 192-205 (2022).

A method for computing NMR shieldings with the direct random phase approximation (RPA) and the closely related sigma-functionals [Trushin, E.,. Thierbach, A.,. Gorling, A. Toward chemical accuracy at low computational cost: density functional theory with sigma-functionals for the correlation energy. J. Chem. Phys. 2021, 154, 014104] is presented, which is based on a finite-difference approach. The accuracy is evaluated in benchmark calculations using high-quality coupled cluster values as a reference. Our results show that the accuracy of the computed NMR shieldings using direct RPA is strongly dependent on the density functional theory reference orbitals and improves with increasing amounts of exact Hartree-Fock exchange in the functional. NMR shieldings computed with direct RPA using a Hartree-Fock reference are significantly more accurate than MP2 shieldings and comparable to CCSD shieldings. Also, the basis set convergence is analyzed and it is shown that at least triple-zeta basis sets are required for reliable results.

##### Efficient low-scaling computation of NMR shieldings at the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory level with Cholesky-decomposed densities and an attenuated Coulomb metric

M. Glasbrenner, S. Vogler, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Physics 155 (22), 224107 (2021).

A method for the computation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings with second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) is presented which allows to efficiently compute the entire set of shieldings for a given molecular structure. The equations are derived using Laplace-transformed atomic orbital second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as a starting point. The Z-vector approach is employed for minimizing the number of coupled-perturbed self-consistent-field equations that need to be solved. In addition, the method uses the resolution-of-the-identity approximation with an attenuated Coulomb metric and Cholesky decomposition of pseudo-density matrices. The sparsity in the three-center integrals is exploited with sparse linear algebra approaches, leading to reduced computational cost and memory demands. Test calculations show that the deviations from NMR shifts obtained with canonical MP2 are small if appropriate thresholds are used. The performance of the method is illustrated in calculations on DNA strands and on glycine chains with up to 283 atoms and 2864 basis functions.

##### Lagrangian-Based Minimal-Overhead Batching Scheme for the Efficient Integral-Direct Evaluation of the RPA Correlation Energy

V. Drontschenko, D. Graf, H. Laqua, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 17 (9), 5623-5634 (2021).

A highly memory-efficient integral-direct random phase approximation (RPA) method based on our omega-CDGD-RI-RPA method [Graf, D. et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2018, 14, 2505] is presented that completely alleviates the memory bottleneck of storing the multidimensional three-center integral tensor, which severely limited the tractable system sizes. Based on a Lagrangian formulation, we introduce an optimized batching scheme over the auxiliary and basis-function indices, which allows to compute the optimal number of batches for a given amount of system memory, while minimizing the batching overhead. Thus, our optimized batching constitutes the best tradeoff between program runtime and memory demand. Within this batching scheme, the half-transformed three-center integral tensor B-i mu(M) is recomputed for each batch of auxiliary and basis functions. This allows the computation of systems that were out of reach before. The largest system within this work consists of a DNA fragment comprising 1052 atoms and 11 230 basis functions calculated on a single node, which emphasizes the new possibilities of our integral-direct RPA method.

##### Accelerating seminumerical Fock-exchange calculations using mixed single- and double-precision arithmethic

H. Laqua, J. Kussmann, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Physics 154 (21), 214116 (2021).

"We investigate the applicability of single-precision (fp32) floating point operations within our linear-scaling, seminumerical exchange method sn-LinK [Laqua et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 16, 1456 (2020)] and find that the vast majority of the three-center-one-electron (3c1e) integrals can be computed with reduced numerical precision with virtually no loss in overall accuracy. This leads to a near doubling in performance on central processing units (CPUs) compared to pure fp64 evaluation. Since the cost of evaluating the 3c1e integrals is less significant on graphic processing units (GPUs) compared to CPU, the performance gains from accelerating 3c1e integrals alone is less impressive on GPUs. Therefore, we also investigate the possibility of employing only fp32 operations to evaluate the exchange matrix within the self-consistent-field (SCF) followed by an accurate one-shot evaluation of the exchange energy using mixed fp32/fp64 precision. This still provides very accurate (1.8 mu Eh maximal error) results while providing a sevenfold speedup on a typical ""gaming"" GPU (GTX 1080Ti). We also propose the use of incremental exchange-builds to further reduce these errors. The proposed SCF scheme (i-sn-LinK) requires only one mixed-precision exchange matrix calculation, while all other exchange-matrix builds are performed with only fp32 operations. Compared to pure fp64 evaluation, this leads to 4-7x speedups for the whole SCF procedure without any significant deterioration of the results or the convergence behavior."

##### Highly Efficient Resolution-of-Identity Density Functional Theory Calculations on Central and Graphics Processing Units

J. Kussmann, H. Laqua, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 17 (3), 1512-1521 (2021).

We present an efficient method to evaluate Coulomb potential matrices using the resolution of identity approximation and semilocal exchange-correlation potentials on central (CPU) and graphics processing units (GPU). The new GPU-based RI-algorithm shows a high performance and ensures the favorable scaling with increasing basis set size as the conventional CPU-based method. Furthermore, our method is based on the J-engine algorithm [White, Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 1996, 7, 2620], which allows for further optimizations that also provide a significant improvement of the corresponding CPU-based algorithm. Due to the increased performance for the Coulomb evaluation, the calculation of the exchange-correlation potential of density functional theory on CPUs quickly becomes a bottleneck to the overall computational time. Hence, we also present a GPU-based algorithm to evaluate the exchange-correlation terms, which results in an overall high-performance method for density functional calculations. The algorithms to evaluate the potential and nuclear derivative terms are discussed, and their performance on CPUs and GPUs is demonstrated for illustrative calculations.

##### Low-Scaling Tensor Hypercontraction in the Cholesky Molecular Orbital Basis Applied to Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory

F. H. Bangerter, M. Glasbrenner, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 17 (1), 211-221 (2021).

We employ various reduced scaling techniques to accelerate the recently developed least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) approximation [Parrish, R M., Hohenstein, E. G., Martinez, T. J., Sherrill, C. D. J. Chem. Phys. 137, 224106 (2012)] for electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) and apply it to second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The grid-projected ERI tensors are efficiently constructed using a localized Cholesky molecular orbital basis from density-fitted integrals with an attenuated Coulomb metric. Additionally, rigorous integral screening and the natural blocking matrix format are applied to reduce the complexity of this step. By recasting the equations to form the quantized representation of the 1/r operator Z into the form of a system of linear equations, the bottleneck of inverting the grid metric via pseudoinversion is removed. This leads to a reduced scaling THC algorithm and application to MP2 yields the (sub-)quadratically scaling THC-omega-RI-CDD-SOS-MP2 method. The efficiency of this method is assessed for various systems including DNA fragments with over 8000 basis functions and the subquadratic scaling is illustrated.

##### A scaled explicitly correlated F12 correction to second-order MOller-Plesset perturbation theory

L. Urban, T. H. Thompson, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Physics 154 (4), 44101 (2021).

An empirically scaled version of the explicitly correlated F12 correction to second-order MOller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2-F12) is introduced. The scaling eliminates the need for many of the most costly terms of the F12 correction while reproducing the unscaled explicitly correlated F12 interaction energy correction to a high degree of accuracy. The method requires a single, basis set dependent scaling factor that is determined by fitting to a set of test molecules. We present factors for the cc-pVXZ-F12 (X = D, T, Q) basis set family obtained by minimizing interaction energies of the S66 set of small- to medium-sized molecular complexes and show that our new method can be applied to accurately describe a wide range of systems. Remarkably good explicitly correlated corrections to the interaction energy are obtained for the S22 and L7 test sets, with mean percentage errors for the double-zeta basis of 0.60% for the F12 correction to the interaction energy, 0.05% for the total electron correlation interaction energy, and 0.03% for the total interaction energy, respectively. Additionally, mean interaction energy errors introduced by our new approach are below 0.01 kcal mol(-1) for each test set and are thus negligible for second-order perturbation theory based methods. The efficiency of the new method compared to the unscaled F12 correction is shown for all considered systems, with distinct speedups for medium- to large-sized structures.

##### A range-separated generalized Kohn-Sham method including a long-range nonlocal random phase approximation correlation potential

D. Graf, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Physics 153 (24), 244118 (2020).

"Based on our recently published range-separated random phase approximation (RPA) functional [Kreppel et al., ""Range-separated density-functional theory in combination with the random phase approximation: An accuracy benchmark,"" J. Chem. Theory Comput. 16, 2985-2994 (2020)], we introduce self-consistent minimization with respect to the one-particle density matrix. In contrast to the range-separated RPA methods presented so far, the new method includes a long-range nonlocal RPA correlation potential in the orbital optimization process, making it a full-featured variational generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) method. The new method not only improves upon all other tested RPA schemes including the standard post-GKS range-separated RPA for the investigated test cases covering general main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions but also significantly outperforms the popular G(0)W(0) method in estimating the ionization potentials and fundamental gaps considered in this work using the eigenvalue spectra obtained from the GKS Hamiltonian."

##### Efficient Reduced-Scaling Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory with Cholesky-Decomposed Densities and an Attenuated Coulomb Metric

M. Glasbrenner, D. Graf, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 16 (11), 6856-6868 (2020).

We present a novel, highly efficient method for the computation of second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) correlation energies, which uses the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation and local molecular orbitals obtained from a Cholesky decomposition of pseudodensity matrices (CDD), as in the RI-CDD-MP2 method developed previously in our group [Maurer, S. A.,. Clin, L.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 140, 224112]. In addition, we introduce an attenuated Coulomb metric and subsequently redesign the RI-CDD-MP2 method in order to exploit the resulting sparsity in the three-center integrals. Coulomb and exchange energy contributions are computed separately using specialized algorithms. A simple, yet effective integral screening protocol based on Schwarz estimates is used for the MP2 exchange energy. The Coulomb energy computation and the preceding transformations of the three-center integrals are accelerated using a modified version of the natural blocking approach [Jung, Y.,. Head-Gordon, M. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2006, 8, 2831-2840]. Effective subquadratic scaling for a wide range of molecule sizes is demonstrated in test calculations in conjunction with a low prefactor. The method is shown to enable cost-efficient MP2 calculations on large molecular systems with several thousand basis functions.

##### Range-Separated Density-Functional Theory in Combination with the Random Phase Approximation: An Accuracy Benchmark

A. Kreppel, D. Graf, H. Laqua, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 16 (5), 2985-2994 (2020).

A formulation of range-separated random phase approximation (RPA) based on our efficient omega-CDGD-RI-RPA [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2018, 14, 2505] method and a large scale benchmark study are presented. By application to the GMTKN55 data set, we obtain a comprehensive picture of the performance of range-separated RPA in general main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions. The results show that range-separated RPA performs stably over the broad range of molecular chemistry included in the GMTKN55 set. It improves significantly over semilocal DFT but it is still less accurate than modern dispersion corrected double-hybrid functionals. Furthermore, range-separated RPA shows a faster basis set convergence compared to standard full-range RPA making it a promising applicable approach with only one empirical parameter.

##### Highly Efficient, Linear-Scaling Seminumerical Exact-Exchange Method for Graphic Processing Units

H. Laqua, T. H. Thompson, J. Kussmann, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 16 (3), 1456-1468 (2020).

We present a highly efficient and asymptotically linear-scaling graphic processing unit accelerated seminumerical exact-exchange method (snLinK). We go beyond our previous central processing unit-based method (Laqua, H.,. Kussmann, J.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2018, 14, 3451-3458) by employing our recently developed integral bounds (Thompson, T. H.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 1.50, 044101) and high-accuracy numerical integration grid (Laqua, H.,. Kussmann, J.,. Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2018, 149, 204111). The accuracy is assessed for several established test sets, providing errors significantly below 1mE(h) for the smallest grid. Moreover, a comprehensive performance analysis for large molecules between 62 and 1347 atoms is provided, revealing the outstanding performance of our method, in particular, for large basis sets such as the polarized quadruple-zeta level with diffuse functions.

##### A Schwarz inequality for complex basis function methods in non-Hermitian quantum chemistry

T. H. Thompson, C. Ochsenfeld, T. C. Jagau

Journal of Chemical Physics 151 (18), 184104 (2019).

A generalization of the Schwarz bound employed to reduce the scaling of quantum-chemical calculations is introduced in the context of non-Hermitian methods employing complex-scaled basis functions. Non-Hermitian methods offer a treatment of molecular metastable states in terms of L-2-integrable wave functions with complex energies, but until now, an efficient upper bound for the resulting electron-repulsion integrals has been unavailable due to the complications from non-Hermiticity. Our newly formulated bound allows us to inexpensively and rigorously estimate the sparsity in the complex-scaled two-electron integral tensor, providing the basis for efficient integral screening procedures. We have incorporated a screening algorithm based on the new Schwarz bound into the state-of-the-art complex basis function integral code by White, Head-Gordon, and McCurdy [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 054103 (2015)]. The effectiveness of the screening is demonstrated through non-Hermitian Hartree-Fock calculations of the static field ionization of the 2-pyridoxine 2-aminopyridine molecular complex. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

##### Low-Scaling Self-Consistent Minimization of a Density Matrix Based Random Phase Approximation Method in the Atomic Orbital Space

D. Graf, M. Beuerle, C. Ochsenfeld

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 15 (8), 4468-4477 (2019).

An efficient minimization of the random phase approximation (RPA) energy with respect to the one-particle density matrix in the atomic orbital space is presented. The problem of imposing full self-consistency on functionals depending on the potential itself is bypassed by approximating the RPA Hamiltonian on the basis of the well-known Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian making our self-consistent RPA method completely parameter-free. It is shown that the new method not only outperforms post-Kohn-Sham RPA in describing noncovalent interactions but also gives accurate dipole moments demonstrating the high quality of the calculated densities. Furthermore, the main drawback of atomic orbital based methods, in increasing the prefactor as compared to their canonical counterparts, is overcome by introducing Cholesky decomposed projectors allowing the use of large basis sets. Exploiting the locality of atomic and/or Cholesky orbitals enables us to present a self-consistent RPA method which shows asymptotically quadratic scaling opening the door for calculations on large molecular systems.